Last updated: May. 08, 2015
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Michael Jordan Stanway, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
7700 Sandholdt Road
Moss Landing, CA 95039
Phone: +1-831-775-1960
Fax: +1-831-775-1620
email: mjstanway


current focus

Jordan is working on compact models for ocean forecasting and researching other threads related to the operation and design of the Tethys class Long-Range Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (LRAUV) .
research profiles and code repositories

ORCiD 0000-0003-4014-1767 | Scopus Author ID 8329140100 | ResearchGate | GitHub
education

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 2007-2012

MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy: Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, 2012
Advisor: Dr. Dana Yoerger

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2002-2012

Master of Science: Ocean Engineering, 2008
Bachelor of Science: Ocean Engineering, 2006
Advisor: Prof. Alexandra Techet

previous experience

WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory Woods Hole, MA - 2008-2012

  • Developed and implemented automated navigation techniques for underwater vehicles
  • Operations and troubleshooting for AUV Sentry in oceanographic field deployments

MIT Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory Cambridge, MA - 2006-2008

etc.

  • map projections
  • publications

    QuickSearch:   # matching entries: 0.

    settings


    Stanway, M.J. & Kinsey, J.C. "Rotation Identification in Geometric Algebra: Theory and Application to the Navigation of Underwater Robots in the Field", Journal of Field Robotics. 2015. (early view).
    Abstract: We report the derivation and experimental evaluation of a stable adaptive identifier to estimate rigid body rotations using rotors in Geometric Algebra. This work is motivated by the need for in-situ estimation of the alignment between sensors commonly used in underwater vehicle navigation. We formulate the identifier using a geometric interpretation of the error to drive first-order rotor kinematics and then prove its asymptotic stability using Lyapunov theory. We apply the identifier to produce an online estimate of the alignment between the Doppler velocity log sonar and fiber optic gyrocompass used by underwater vehicles for dead reckoning. We evaluate the identifier using experimental data from a remotely operated vehicle in controlled laboratory conditions and an autonomous underwater vehicle in the field. Our results show that this technique reduces dead reckoning navigation errors in these platforms and provides comparable performance to previously reported SO(3) constrained Linear Algebra approaches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stanway2015rotationidentification,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan and Kinsey, James C.},
      title = {Rotation Identification in Geometric Algebra: Theory and Application to the Navigation of Underwater Robots in the Field},
      journal = {Journal of Field Robotics},
      year = {2015},
      note = {(early view)},
      url = {http://doi.org/10.1002/rob.21572},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rob.21572}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., Kieft, B., Hoover, T., Hobson, B., Klimov, D., Erickson, J., Raanan, B.Y., Ebert, D. & Bellingham, J., "White Shark Strike on a Long-Range AUV in Monterey Bay", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. Genova, Italy. May 2015.
    Abstract: Thirteen minutes after sunrise on September 30, 2013, 16.5 m deep in northern Monterey Bay, a white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) struck the MBARI long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (LRAUV) Tethys and left bite grooves in the pressure vessel and tooth fragments embedded in the aft fairing. Tethys survived the attack and continued her mission measuring ocean properties in that area for another week. The operators did not know about the strike until recovering the vehicle normally at the end of the deployment, when the tooth fragments and apparent bite diameter provided sufficient information to identify the shark species. We discuss the motion of the vehicle during the strike, its control response after being released by the shark, and the environmental properties it measured near the time of the strike. We also provide a damage report – although Tethys was able to complete her mission after the strike, she did not get away without a scratch. This event is a good example for recent work aimed at detecting faults and performance anomalies onboard in realtime so that operators can be notified. We show that a statistical anomaly detector correctly identifies the strike and effectively highlights it as unexpected behavior for the operator to review.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2015sharkstrike,
      author = {M. J. Stanway and B. Kieft and T. Hoover and B. Hobson and D. Klimov and J. Erickson and B. Y. Raanan and D. Ebert and J. Bellingham},
      title = {White Shark Strike on a Long-Range AUV in Monterey Bay},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2015},
      month = {May},
      note = {(to appear)}
    }
    
    Zhang, Y., Bellingham, J.G., Ryan, J.P., Kieft, B. & Stanway, M.J. "Autonomous 4-D Mapping and Tracking of a Coastal Upwelling Front by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle", Journal of Field Robotics. 2015. (in review).
    Abstract: Coastal upwelling is a wind-driven ocean process that brings cooler, saltier, and nutrient-rich deep water upward to the surface. The boundary between the upwelling water and the normally stratified water is called the ``upwelling front''. Upwelling fronts support enriched phytoplankton and zooplankton populations, thus having great influences on ocean ecosystems. Traditional ship-based methods for detecting and sampling ocean fronts are often laborious and very difficult, and long-term tracking of such dynamic features is practically impossible. In our prior work, we developed a method of using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to autonomously detect an upwelling front and track the front’s movement on a fixed latitude, and applied the method in scientific experiments. In this paper we present an extension of the method. Each time the AUV crosses and detects the front, the vehicle makes a turn at an oblique angle to recross the front, thus zigzagging through the front to map the frontal zone. The AUV’s zigzag tracks alternate in northward and southward sweeps, so as to track the front as it moves over time. This way, the AUV maps and tracks the front in four dimensions -- vertical, cross-front, along-front, and time. From 29 May to 4 June 2013, the Tethys long-range AUV ran the algorithm to map and track an upwelling front in Monterey Bay, CA, over five and one-half days. The tracking observed temporal variations of water properties at the same locations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang2015autonomous4D,
      author = {Yanwu Zhang and James G. Bellingham and John P. Ryan and Brian Kieft and Michael J. Stanway},
      title = {Autonomous 4-D Mapping and Tracking of a Coastal Upwelling Front by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle},
      journal = {Journal of Field Robotics},
      year = {2015},
      note = {(in review)}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., Kieft, B., Hoover, T., Hobson, B., Hamilton, A. & Bellingham, J., "Acoustic Tracking and Homing with a Long-Range AUV", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. September 2014.
    Abstract: This paper presents the development effort toward
    demonstrating acoustic tracking and homing with a long-range
    AUV (LRAUV) at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Insti-
    tute (MBARI). The acoustic tracking system uses a directional
    acoustic transponder (DAT) from Teledyne Benthos, backed by
    an acoustic baffle made from syntactic acoustic damping material
    (SADM). We discuss sensor integration into the LRAUV system,
    procedures and results from an in-house calibration, and field
    tests with both anchored and towed transponders.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2014acoustictracking,
      author = {M Jordan Stanway and Brian Kieft and Thomas Hoover and Brett Hobson and Andrew Hamilton and Jim Bellingham},
      title = {Acoustic Tracking and Homing with a Long-Range AUV},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2014},
      month = {September},
      url = {http://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2014.7003277},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2014.7003277}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., Zhang, Y. & Bellingham, J.G. "Interpolating through time and space with empirical orthogonal functions", In Ocean Sciences Meeting. ALSLO. Honolulu, HI, February, 2014.
    Abstract: Interpolation is necessary when working with many types of real-world data -- for example, it is required to overcome limited spatial and temporal resolution and data gaps. Interpolation through both space and time together can be particularly difficult. We present a novel approach using singular value decomposition to decouple the spatial and temporal components, interpolate them independently, and reconstruct the original field on an as-needed basis. The empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) describe the spatial variability, and their expansion coefficients (ECs) capture the temporal variability. This decomposition simplifies the problem. Since the leading EOF modes capture the majority of the spatial information, the original variable can often be reconstructed using fewer EOFs than original timesteps. Additionally, the interpolants over the EOFs and ECs can be pre-computed, and building the interpolant is often more costly than evaluating it at the desired coordinates. We demonstrate the new method in three example applications using surface current data in Monterey Bay: upsampling the current fields, calculating the path of a surface drifter, and tying in with forecast data generated by a compact ocean model.
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Stanway2014interpolatingposter,
      author = {M Jordan Stanway and Yanwu Zhang and James G Bellingham},
      title = {Interpolating through time and space with empirical orthogonal functions},
      booktitle = {Ocean Sciences Meeting},
      organization = {ALSLO},
      address = {Honolulu, HI},
      year = {2014},
      month = {February},
      url = {http://www.eposters.net/poster/interpolating-through-time-and-space-with-empirical-orthogonal-functions},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2459.7929}
    }
    
    Zhang, Y., Bellingham, J.G., Ryan, J.P., Kieft, B. & Stanway, M.J., "Two-dimensional mapping and tracking of a coastal upwelling front by an autonomous underwater vehicle", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. San Diego, CA. Sept 2013.
    Abstract: Coastal upwelling is a wind-driven ocean process. It brings cooler, saltier, and usually nutrient-rich deep water upward to the surface. The boundary between the upwelling water and the normally stratified water is called the ``upwelling front''. Upwelling fronts support enriched phytoplankton and zooplankton populations, thus having great influences on ocean ecosystems. In our prior work, we developed and field demonstrated a method of using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to autonomously identify an upwelling front, map the vertical structure across the front, and track the front's movement on a fixed latitude (i.e., one-dimensional tracking). In this paper we present an extension of the method for mapping and tracking an upwelling front on both latitudinal and longitudinal dimensions (i.e., two-dimensional) using an AUV. Each time the AUV crosses and detects the meandering front, the vehicle makes a turn at an oblique angle to recross the front, thus zigzagging through the front to map it. The AUV's zigzag tracks alternate in northward and southward sweeps, so as to track the front as it moves over time. From 29 May to 4 June 2013, the Tethys long-range AUV ran the algorithm to autonomously detect and track an upwelling front in Monterey Bay, CA. The AUV repeatedly mapped the frontal zone over an area of about 200 km^2 in more than five days.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Zhang2013twodimensional,
      author = {Yanwu Zhang and Bellingham, J. G. and Ryan, J. P. and Kieft, B. and Stanway, M. J.},
      title = {Two-dimensional mapping and tracking of a coastal upwelling front by an autonomous underwater vehicle},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Sept},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6741231}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J. (2012), "Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation", doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program. Cambridge and Woods Hole, MA. February 2012.
    Abstract: This dissertation presents three separate -- but related -- contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle autonomy, so the emphasis is on automated approaches that can be used in realtime. The three research threads are: i) in situ navigation sensor alignment, ii) dead reckoning through the water column, and iii) model-driven delayed measurement fusion. Contributions to each of these areas have been demonstrated in simulation, with laboratory data, or in the field -- some have been demonstrated in all three arenas.

    The solution to the in situ navigation sensor alignment problem is an asymptotically stable adaptive identifier formulated using rotors in Geometric Algebra. This identifier is applied to precisely estimate the unknown alignment between a gyrocompass and Doppler velocity log, with the goal of improving realtime dead reckoning navigation. Laboratory and field results show the identifier performs comparably to previously reported methods using rotation matrices, providing an alignment estimate that reduces the position residuals between dead reckoning and an external acoustic positioning system. The Geometric Algebra formulation also encourages a straightforward interpretation of the identifier as a proportional feedback regulator on the observable output error. Future applications of the identifier may include alignment between inertial, visual, and acoustic sensors.

    The ability to link the Global Positioning System at the surface to precision dead reckoning near the seafloor might enable new kinds of missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. This research introduces a method for dead reckoning through the water column using water current profile data collected by an onboard acoustic Doppler current profiler. Overlapping relative current profiles provide information to simultaneously estimate the vehicle velocity and local ocean current?the vehicle velocity is then integrated to estimate position. The method is applied to field data using online bin average, weighted least squares, and recursive least squares implementations. This demonstrates an autonomous navigation link between the surface and the seafloor without any dependence on a ship or external acoustic tracking systems.

    Finally, in many state estimation applications, delayed measurements present an interesting challenge. Underwater navigation is a particularly compelling case because of the relatively long delays inherent in all available position measurements. This research develops a flexible, model-driven approach to delayed measurement fusion in realtime Kalman filters. Using a priori estimates of delayed measurements as augmented states minimizes the computational cost of the delay treatment. Managing the augmented states with time-varying conditional process and measurement models ensures the approach works within the proven Kalman filter framework -- without altering the filter structure or requiring any ad-hoc adjustments. The end result is a mathematically principled treatment of the delay that leads to more consistent estimates with lower error and uncertainty. Field results from dead reckoning aided by acoustic positioning systems demonstrate the applicability of this approach to real-world problems in underwater navigation.

    Thesis Supervisor: Dana R. Yoerger
    Title: Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Stanway2012ctarun,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation},
      school = {Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program}begin{address},
      address = {Cambridge and Woods Hole, MA},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/70429}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., "Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation", In Proceedings of Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology (UUST). AUSI. Portsmouth, New Hampshire. August 2011.
    Abstract: Navigation remains a challenging problem for underwater vehicles. Fundamental limitations of sensing technology necessitate a multi-sensor approach to achieve robust, high precision navigation. This paper addresses three critical problems in automatic realtime navigation for underwater vehicles: i) in situ alignment identification of navigation sensors, ii) dead reckoning through the water column, and iii) rigorous treatment of time-delayed position measurements. A novel approach is presented to solve each of these problems. Each approach is then demonstrated using laboratory or field data from an underwater vehicle.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2011contributions,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Contributions to Automated Realtime Underwater Navigation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology (UUST)},
      organization = {AUSI},
      year = {2011},
      month = {August},
      note = {(student paper award)},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1935.5040}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., "Dead Reckoning Through the Water Column with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler: Field Experiences", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. Kona, Hawai'i. September 2011.
    Abstract: Underwater vehicles currently rely on external acoustic tracking systems to estimate position when away from the surface or the seafloor. Many vehicles dead reckon near the seafloor using a Doppler velocity log. This paper presents a method for dead reckoning through the water column using overlapping water profiles measured by a vehicle-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. Under mild assumptions, the vehicle can simultaneously estimate its own global velocity at the same time as identifying the ocean current profile. The estimation problem is solved using batch least squares, recursive least squares, or a simple online depth bin averaging scheme. We discuss challenges encountered in implementing the approach during three field deployments of the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry, and provide estimates of the ocean current, the vehicle velocity, and integrated position.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2011deadreckoning,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Dead Reckoning Through the Water Column with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler: Field Experiences},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      month = {September},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6107136}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J. & Kinsey, J.C., "Sensor Alignment Using Rotors in Geometric Algebra", In Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE. Shanghai, China. May 2011.
    Abstract: This paper uses rotors in Geometric Algebra to formulate a stable adaptive identifier on the group of rigid body rotations. This identifier is intended to estimate the alignment offsets between independent sensors. The approach provides a straightforward geometric interpretation based on first-order rotor kinematics. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the stability of the identifier, and numerical simulations illustrate its behavior with and without measurement noise.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2011sensoralignment,
      author = {Stanway, M. Jordan and Kinsey, James C.},
      title = {Sensor Alignment Using Rotors in Geometric Algebra},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
      organization = {IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      month = {May},
      note = {peer-reviewed},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2011.5980519}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., "Delayed-state sigma point Kalman filters for underwater navigation", In Proceedings of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Conference (AUV). IEEE/OES. Monterey, CA. September 2010.
    Abstract: Measurement delays are inherent in position feedback methods used for underwater navigation. Even for small delays, proper treatment of these measurements will provide more robust performance and reduce uncertainties, improving overall precision. The Kalman filter can be adapted to treat delayed measurements in an efficient and mathematically rigorous way. We present a delayed state sigma point Kalman filter implementation for underwater navigation using delayed position measurements. The implementation includes a novel model-based approach to fusing the delayed measurements, with the ability to handle varying delays. We provide an example mission scenario where a surface tender with an ultra-short baseline (USBL) system tracks a submerged vehicle. We use this example to renavigate field data from recent deployments of the National Deep Submergence Facility autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry, and compare estimates from a delay-compensated filter to those from a filter that ignores the delay.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2010delayedstate,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Delayed-state sigma point Kalman filters for underwater navigation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Conference (AUV)},
      organization = {IEEE/OES},
      year = {2010},
      month = {September},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AUV.2010.5779652}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., "Water Profile Navigation with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. Sydney, Australia. May 2010.
    Abstract: A novel navigation method is introduced using water current profiles measured by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moving vehicle. These current profiles are combined with measurements of vehicle attitude and depth to simultaneously estimate the local current and the vehicle velocity. This velocity estimate can be integrated directly to give a position estimate, or it can be fused with measurements from other navigation sensors, such as an Inertial Navigation System (INS), Long Baseline (LBL) or Ultra-Short Baseline (USBL) acoustic tracking system. The method allows an underwater vehicle to maintain an estimate of its global position throughout all phases of its mission, including descent and ascent.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2010waterprofile,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Water Profile Navigation with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2010},
      month = {May},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603647}
    }
    
    Epps, B.P., Stanway, M.J. & Kimball, R.W., "OpenProp: An Open-source Design Tool for Propellers and Turbines", In Proceedings of the Propellers and Shafting Conference. SNAME. Williamsburg, VA. September 2009.
    Abstract: An open-sourced computational tool for the design and analysis of optimized propellers and turbines is presented. The design tool, called OpenProp, is based on well-proven vortex lattice lifting line methods utilized by the US Navy as well as commercial designers. This paper presents the methodology and numerical implementation of OpenProp, with multiple examples of designs, including actual parts fabricated from the code using 3D printing technology
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Epps2009openprop,
      author = {B. P. Epps and M. J. Stanway and R. W. Kimball},
      title = {OpenProp: An Open-source Design Tool for Propellers and Turbines},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Propellers and Shafting Conference},
      organization = {SNAME},
      year = {2009},
      month = {September},
      url = {https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20570892/Publications/Conference%20Papers/Epps2009openprop.pdf}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J. (2008), "Hydrodynamic effects of leading-edge tubercles on control surfaces and in flapping foil propulsion", master's thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, MA. February 2008.
    Abstract: This thesis investigates the hydrodynamic effects of biologically-inspired leading-edge tubercles. Two complementary studies examine the performance of three-dimensional hydrofoils based on the pectoral flippers of the Humpback Whale (novangilae megaptera). The first study uses a static foil, with application to conventional control surfaces -- such as rudders or dive planes -- found on marine vehicles. The second study uses a dynamic foil, with application to flapping foil propulsion.

    The lift and drag characteristics of foils with and without tubercles are compared using force measurements from experiments conducted in a water tunnel at four Reynolds numbers between 4.4 × 10^4 and 1.2 × 10^5 . Results from these experiments indicate the foils stall from the trailing edge in the range of Reynolds numbers tested. Stall was delayed on the foil with tubercles; maximum lift was reduced in all cases but the highest Re . PIV flow visualization at Re = 8.9 × 10^4 showed flow separation at the trailing edge of both foils as attack angle was increased, confirming that the foils were in trailing edge stall. Surface normal vorticity in ensemble averaged flow fields showed distinct pairs of opposite sign vortical structures being generated by the tubercles, providing some insight into the fluid dynamic mechanism that leads to changes in the performance of a foil with tubercles.

    Tubercles were used on a flapping foil for the first time. Mean thrust coefficient, C_T , power coefficient, C_P , and efficiency, were measured over a wide parametric space. The maximum thrust coefficient and efficiency measured using the smooth control foil were C_T = 3.511 and eta = 0.678. The maxima using the tubercled test foil were C_T = 3.366 and eta = 0.663. In general, the foil with tubercles performed worse than the control, and this performance deficit grew with increased loading. These results suggest that the vortical structures generated by the tubercles interfere with the thrust wake generated by flapping, ultimately degrading performance.

    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Stanway2008hydrodynamiceffects,
      author = {Stanway, Michael Jordan},
      title = {Hydrodynamic effects of leading-edge tubercles on control surfaces and in flapping foil propulsion},
      school = {Massachusetts Institute of Technology},
      address = {Cambridge, MA},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/42917}
    }
    
    D'Epagnier, K.P., Chung, H.-L., Stanway, M.J. & Kimball, R.W., "An Open Source Parametric Propeller Design Tool", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. October 2007.
    Abstract: An open source computational propeller/turbine design tool, the user-friendly open source MIT Propeller Vortex Lattice Lifting Line Program (OpenProp), is presented in this paper. This code has applications in propeller design for AUV and ROV thrusters as well as conventional propellers. The code is also being utilized for tidal turbine design. OpenProp is designed to be a fast parametric design tool for use by engineers with little training in propeller design. This tool can also be used by more experienced designers, as a preliminary design tool, to produce a starting design for further refinement using more advanced design and analysis codes.
    Various design examples are presented, including an ROV propeller design and a contra-rotating AUV Thruster design. These propellers were constructed and performance tested. The performance data for these propeller designs is also presented. The code was validated against the US Navy's PLL code and these results are also presented. The OpenProp propeller design tool is part of a suite of open source tools under development for rapid design, building and testing of propeller design models.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{DEpagnier2007opensource,
      author = {D'Epagnier, Kathyryn Port and Chung, Hsin-Lung and Stanway, M. Jordan and Kimball, Richard W.},
      title = {An Open Source Parametric Propeller Design Tool},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2007},
      month = {October},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2007.4449400}
    }
    
    Brundage, H., Cooney, L., Huo, E., Lichter, H., Oyebode, O., Sinha, P., Stanway, M., Stefanov-Wagner, T., Stiehl, K. & Walker, D., "Design of an ROV to Compete in the 5th Annual MATE ROV Competition and Beyond", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. September 2006.
    Abstract: Since 2002, the Marine Advanced Technology Center (MATE) has sponsored a nation-wide remotely operated vehicle (ROV) competition. This year's competition consisted of two mission tasks based on ocean observing systems, to be completed in less than 30 minutes at a depth of 12.2 meters. Taking a different approach from previous years, the MIT ROV team designed our main ROV, MTHR, not only to compete in the MATE competition, but also to be used afterwards for both didactic and practical purposes. To this end, the team did not design MTHR specifically for the competition, but instead set out to design a robust ROV that was capable of competing in the MATE competition. The team set priorities on keeping MTHR easy to operate and the sub-systems modular so that they could be improved or expanded upon, allowing MTHR to act as a test bed for new technology in the future. On top of this, the team also placed size constraints, in order to keep it maneuverable and easy to transport, and monetary constraints, in order to keep it affordable. These design considerations led our team to build a small, battery-powered ROV that operates off a single strand of passively spooling fiber optic cable. MTHR is equipped with team-designed countrarotating propellers and a flexible control system. Though a spatially controlled, 5 degree-of-freedom manipulator was designed and built for the ROV, it was not ready to integrate in time for the competition so a simpler gripper was installed. In addition to MTHR, a second ROV, JR, was built to act as a flying-eye to aid in navigation during the competition. Working together, these two ROVs create a powerful system capable of completing complex tasks and providing a valuable research and teaching platform
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Brundage2006design,
      author = {Brundage, H.M. and Cooney, L. and Huo, E. and Lichter, H. and Oyebode, O. and Sinha, P. and Stanway, M.J. and Stefanov-Wagner, T. and Stiehl, K. and Walker, D.},
      title = {Design of an ROV to Compete in the 5th Annual MATE ROV Competition and Beyond},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2006},
      month = {September},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2006.306900}
    }
    
    Cooney, L., Stanway, M., Augenbergs, P., Brundage, H., Downey, B., Pennington, T., Stefanov-Wagner, T. & Tobias, D., "Design of an Acoustic-Homing Autonomous Surface Vessel", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. September 2006.
    Abstract: We designed, built, and conducted trials on an acoustic-homing autonomous surface vessel. After characterizing the performance of a commercially available kayak hull, we installed power, propulsion, and control systems for autonomous operation. The acoustic tracking payload was built up from basic components. We overcame hardware limitations in the microcontrollers and demonstrated acceptable average accuracy in locating the acoustic target. This project demonstrated the feasibility of the overall goal of using a small surface vessel to follow a submerged acoustic beacon
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cooney2006design,
      author = {Cooney, L. and Stanway, M.J. and Augenbergs, P. and Brundage, H. and Downey, B. and Pennington, T. and Stefanov-Wagner, T. and Tobias, D.},
      title = {Design of an Acoustic-Homing Autonomous Surface Vessel},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2006},
      month = {September},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2006.307027}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J. & Stefanov-Wagner, T., "Small-diameter ducted contrarotating propulsors for marine robots", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. Boston, MA. September 2006.
    Abstract: Many marine robots, including industry and institution-grade systems, rely on substandard propellers for thrust. This is especially true in small systems. Many of these systems are moving toward onboard power, which is often restricted. Inefficient propulsion becomes a major design problem in these vehicles. Using computational tools, we design, test, and evaluate a small-diameter ducted contrarotating propulsor with a high thrust coefficient.

    We perform a parametric study to determine the optimum operating point and match a motor and gearbox to the propulsor. A three-dimensional vortex lattice code is then used in conjunction with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver to adjust the mean camber surface of the propeller blades and todetermine the desired duct offsets.

    The propellers and duct are manufactured using computer-numerical-controlled machines, as are the components for the motor housing and the miter gearbox used to achieve contrarotation. Propulsors are assembled for use on the MIT ROV and for testing in the recirculating water tunnel at the MIT Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory.

    Propulsion tests are conducted to determine K_T , K_Q , and eta at different rotation speeds. Results show good agreement with design and modeling, with some extra losses due to manufacturing roughness and other unmodeled factors.

    Propulsors were installed on the MIT ROV Team?s entry into the Annual MATE ROV Competition, and performed well in real-world conditions. Lessons learned in testing and missions at the competition identified some points for future improvement in
    the design.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2006smalldiameter,
      author = {Stanway, M. Jordan and Stefanov-Wagner, Thaddeus},
      title = {Small-diameter ducted contrarotating propulsors for marine robots},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2006},
      month = {September},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2006.307030}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J. & Techet, A.H. "Spanwise visualization of the flow around a three-dimensional foil with leading edge protuberances", In 59th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics. APS. Tampa Bay, FL 2006.
    Abstract: Studies of model humpback whale fins have shown that leading edge protuberances, or tubercles, can lead to delayed stall and increased lift at higher angles of attack, compared to foils with geometrically smooth leading edges. Such enhanced performance characteristics could prove highly useful in underwater vehicles such as gliders or long range AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles). In this work, Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is performed on two static wings in a water tunnel over a range of angles of attack. These three- dimensional, finite-aspect ratio wings are modeled after a humpback whale flipper and are identical in shape, tapered from root to tip, except for the leading edge. In one of the foils the leading edge is smooth, whereas in the other, regularly spaced leading edge bumps are machined to simulate the whale's fin tubercles. Results from these PIV tests reveal distinct cells where coherent flow structures are destroyed as a result of the leading edge perturbations. Tests are performed at Reynolds numbers Re ˜ O(10^5), based on chordlength, in a recirculating water tunnel. An inline six-axis load cell is mounted to measure the forces on the foil over a range of static pitch angles. It is hypothesized that this spanwise breakup of coherent vortical structures is responsible for the delayed angle of stall. These quantitative experiments complement exiting qualitative studies with two dimensional foils.
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Stanway2006spanwise,
      author = {Michael J. Stanway and Alexandra H Techet},
      title = {Spanwise visualization of the flow around a three-dimensional foil with leading edge protuberances},
      booktitle = {59th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics},
      organization = {APS},
      address = {Tampa Bay, FL},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2006.DFD.EO.3}
    }
    
    Brundage, H., Aquing, M., Cooney, L., Downey, B., Huo, E., Kwon, A., Stanway, M., Stefanov-Wagner, T., Stiehl, K. & Walker, D., "Design of a compact, battery powered, and fiber optic controlled remotely operated vehicle", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. Volume 1, pp. 772-777.
    Abstract: Developed for the 4th Annual Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE)Center's remotely operated vehicle (ROV) competition, Tim the ROV was designed and built by MIT's ROV team to compete in the ExplorerClass division. Capable of operating at depths of 40 feet and completingtasks such as fluid collection, temperature measurements, and object retrieval in less than 30 minutes, Tim was designed to be small and highly maneuverable. To aid in maneuverability, Tim is equipped with on-board power and a passive-spooling, single-strand fiber optic tether. Tim's compact layout and powerful thrusters also contribute to the main design goal - build a small, highly maneuverable ROV capable of competing in the MATE ROV competition.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Brundage2005design,
      author = {Brundage, H.M. and Aquing, M. and Cooney, L. and Downey, B. and Huo, E. and Kwon, A. and Stanway, M.J. and Stefanov-Wagner, T. and Stiehl,K. and Walker, D.},
      title = {Design of a compact, battery powered, and fiber optic controlled remotely operated vehicle},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {772-777},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2005.1639846}
    }
    
    Stanway, M.J., "The development of an artificial gill to supply oxygen to a submerged microbial fuel cell", In Proceedings of OCEANS/TECHNO-OCEAN. MTS/IEEE. November 2004. Volume 4, pp. 2354-2361.
    Abstract: The development of an effective system for extracting dissolved oxygen from water would enable humans to work underwater for extended periods. This would have applications to science, industry, exploration, military, and recreation. Human sustenance would require a very sophisticated and high capacity gill system, one that has not been developed to date. The overall aim of this research was to develop an artificial gill that would operate with a realistic and useful load. The load chosen for this research was a microbial fuel cell operating underwater. Countercurrent gill plates were constructed to evaluate several different candidates for use as the oxygen transfer membrane. The oxygen gain of each membrane was measured by comparing dissolved oxygen readings before and after the gill. Celgard 2500 (Celgard, Inc. Charlotte NC), a microporous polypropylene membrane, was chosen as the most suitable candidate; it sustained an oxygen gain greater than 2 mmol/sec. This was a much higher gain than necessary to sustain the fuel cell, which is on the order of 10 nmol/sec. The original fuel cell (NCBE, University of Reading, UK) was then redesigned. The new system was more modular, allowing for a multitude of different experimental configurations. Two of the configurations included an integrated gill, with no moving parts and therefore no power consumption. The cathode of the fuel cell was modified to respond more quickly to changes in oxygen supply. Experiments were conducted measuring the power output of the modified fuel cell and the oxygen uptake of the gill. The MFC ran for multiple days for each test cycle, and data was recorded on a Tattletale Model 8 microcontroller (Onset, Pocasset, MA). It was demonstrated that providing the cathode of the cell with oxygen enabled the cell to sustain much higher voltages than without a continuous oxygen supply. Typical experiments yielded a few microwatts of power between 100 and 200 mV
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Stanway2004development,
      author = {Stanway, M. Jordan},
      title = {The development of an artificial gill to supply oxygen to a submerged microbial fuel cell},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS/TECHNO-OCEAN},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2004},
      month = {November},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {2354-2361},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2004.1406524}
    }
    
    Yandell, A., Austin-Breneman, J., Brett, B., Brundage, H., Downey, J., Fantone, S., Pennington, T., Sheppard, S., Stanway, M. & Stefanov-Wagner, T., "Design of a Roller-Collector Remotely Operated Vehicle", In Proceedings of OCEANS. MTS/IEEE. September 2003. Volume 5, pp. 2784-2790.
    Abstract: The Roller-Collector Remotely Operated Vehicle (RC-ROV) was designed to compete in the interscholastic Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) ROC competition. The objective of the competition was to build an ROV which would enter a mock shipwreck and collect as many objects as possible within a time limit. The most prominent feature of the RC-ROV is the roller collection system. This collection system was chosen because of its simplicity, effectiveness, and ease of use. The system consists of two foam rollers that rotate into each other in order to catch and funnel objects into a collection basket. The vehicle utilizes a fast and easy drive-over collection method which eliminates the need for fine positioning of the vehicle or of the collection mechanism. The electronic controls of the RC-ROV are also designed for simplicity. Using a "brute-force" approach all of the motors are wired through a subsurface breakout box directly to a topside controller. Two cameras are wired directly through the tether to topside monitors. The RC-ROV has two thrusters in each of the vertical, forward, and lateral axes in order to maximize speed and maneuverability. These thrusters can be paired, such that a pair operating in unison provides directional movement along the axis it governs. By operating the motors in opposition, the ROV can be maneuvered to pivot and make directional turns. The RC-ROV has two cameras, one forward-looking and one back-looking. The forward camera aids in both steering and object collection. The rear camera aids in looking behind to see that no objects have been missed in a sweep over the room. The RC-ROV design concept could be expanded and improved upon to create an efficient and inexpensive vehicle for underwater use in fields such as mining and underwater archeology. The roller concept can be used as a substitute or in conjunction with other collection systems that are commonly used today. The RC-ROV is simple to operate and do not require mush pilot training. Roller shape and positioning can be varied to fit specific jobs. The RC-ROV can also operate its rollers in reverse to shuttle cargo to underwater construction sites. Other improvements are likely to be found for the RC-ROV as its low cost, simplicity of design, and ease of use make it very attractive when compared to other, more complicated systems.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Yandell2003design,
      author = {Yandell, A. and Austin-Breneman, J. and Brett, B. and Brundage, H. and Downey, J. and Fantone, S. and Pennington, T. and Sheppard, S. and Stanway, M.J. and Stefanov-Wagner, T.},
      title = {Design of a Roller-Collector Remotely Operated Vehicle},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of OCEANS},
      organization = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2003},
      month = {September},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {2784-2790},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2003.1283037}
    }
    

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