Chris Scholin is a native of St. Louis, Missouri. He received a B.A. in Biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1984, and a M.A. in Molecular Biology and Immunology from Duke University in 1986. After working for a short time as a Research Assistant Professor at the University of South Carolina at Columbia, Chris entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MIT/WHOI) Joint Program in Biological Oceanography with the objective of combining molecular biology and ecology in an ocean setting.

Chris earned his Ph.D. from MIT/WHOI in 1992 and came to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute later that year to focus on building molecular probes to detect waterborne microbes, in particular toxic and harmful algae. Working collaboratively with a team of engineers, his group pioneered the development of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), an instrument that collects water samples autonomously, concentrates microorganisms, and automates the application of molecular probes to detect particular species and substances they produce.

In 2009, 17 years after joining the institute as a Postdoctoral Fellow, Chris was selected to serve as President and CEO of MBARI. In addition to leading MBARI, Chris maintains an active research program that focuses on the development and application of ecogenomic sensors in coastal, open ocean, and deep-sea environments. He currently serves on the Board of Trustees of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. In 2021, Chris was awarded the Lockheed Martin Award for Ocean Science and Engineering from the Marine Technology Society.

Research Interests
Development and application of novel instrumentation for collecting and analyzing environmental DNA (eDNA) and other substances remotely in coastal, open ocean, deep sea, and freshwater environments


Curriculum Vitae


University of Missouri, Columbia, Department of Forestry and Wildlife

B.A. in Biology with Highest Honors from University of California, Santa Barbara

M.A. in Molecular Biology and Immunology from Duke University

Ph.D. in Biological Oceanography from Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program

Postdoctoral Fellow, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Professional Work Experience

  • 1986–1987, University of South Carolina, Columbia, Research Assistant Professor
  • 1994–1997, MBARIAssistant Scientist I
  • 1997–2001, MBARIAssociate Scientist II
  • 2001–2006, MBARIAssociate Scientist III
  • 2005–2009, Chair, MBARI Research Division
  • 2006–present, MBARISenior Scientist IV
  • Current, MBARI President and Chief Executive Officer

Current External Committees

Selected Peer Reviewed Publications

Bowers, H.A., R. Marin, J.A. Birch, C.A. Scholin, and G.J. Doucette (2016). Recovery and identification of Pseudo-nitzschia frustules from natural samples acquired using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). J. Phycol. 52:135–140.

Herfort, L., C. Seaton, M. Wilkin, B. Roman, C. Preston, R. Marin, K. Seitz, M. Smith, V. Haynes, C. Scholin, A. Baptista, H. Simon (2016).  Use of continuous, real-time observations and model simulations to achieve autonomous, adaptive sampling of microbial processes with a robotic sampler.  Linnol. Oceanog. Methods 14:50-67; doi: 10.1002/lom3.10069

Yamahara, K.M., E. Demir-Hilton, C.M. Preston, R. Marin III, D. Pargett, B. Roman, S. Jensen, J.M. Birch, A.B. Boehm, C.A. Scholin (2015). Simultaneous monitoring of fecal indicators and harmful algae using an in in situ autonomous sensor. Letters in Applied Microbiology 61130-138doi: 10.1111/lam.12432.

Aylward, F.O., J.M. Eppley, J.M. Smith, F.P. Chavez, C.A. Scholin, E.F. DeLong (2015). Ocean basin-wide community transcriptome dynamics are conserved among microbial plankton spanning all three domains of life. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci (USA) 112: 5433-5448.

Varaljay, V.A., J. Robidart, C.M. Preston,  S.M. Gifford, B.P. Durham, A.S. Burns, J.P. Ryan, R. Marin III, R.P. Kiene, J.P. Zehr, C.A. Scholin, and M.A. Moran (2015). Single-Taxon Field Measurements of Bacterial Gene Regulation Controlling DMSP Fate. The ISME J. 9: 1677–1686; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.94.

Seegers, B.N., J.M. Birch, R. Marin III, C.A. Scholin, D.A. Caron, E.L. Seubert, M.D.A. Howard, G.L. Roberston, and B.H. Jones (2015).  Subsurface seeding of surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored Environmental Sample Processors, and satellite remote sensing in Southern California.  Limnol. Oceanog. 60:754 -764.

Caron, D.A., A. Gellene, G.J. Smith, E.L. Seubert, V. Campbell, G.S. Sukhatme, B. Seegers, B.H. Jones, A.A.Y. Lie, R. Terrado, M.D.A. Howard, R.M. Kudela, K. Hayashi, J. Ryan, J. Birch, E. Demir-Hilton, K. Yamahara, C.A. Scholin, M. Mengel, and G. Robertson (2015). Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2015.09.013

Ottesen, E.A., C.R. Young, S.M. Gifford, J.M. Eppley, R. Marin III, S.C. Schuster, C.A. Scholin, and E.F. DeLong (2014). Multispecies diel transcriptional oscillations in open ocean heterotrophic bacterial assemblages. Science345: 207-212, 10.1126/science.1252476.

Robidart, J., M.J. Church, J.P. Ryan, F. Ascani, S.T. Wilson, D. Bombar, R. Marin III, K.J. Richards, D.M. Karl, C.A. Scholin, and J.P Zehr (2014). Ecogenomic sensor reveals controls on N2-fixing microorganisms in the North Pacific Ocean. The ISME Journal8: 1175-1185, 10.1038/ismej.2013.244.

Ussler III, W., C.M. Preston, P. Tavormina, D. Pargett, S. Jensen, B. Roman, R. Marin III, S.R. Shah, P.R. Girguis, J.M. Birch, V.J. Orphan, and C. Scholin (2013). Autonomous in situ quantitative PCR amplification of aerobic methanotroph genes in the deep sea. Environmental Science and Technology47: 9339–9346, doi: 10.1021/es4023199.

Ottesen, E.A., C.R. Young, J.M. Eppley, J.P. Ryan, F.P. Chavez, C.A. Scholin, and E.F. DeLong (2013). Rhythm and synchrony of gene expression among sympatric marine microbial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences110: E488-E497, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222099110.

Scholin C.A. (2013). Ecogenomic Sensors. In: Levin S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, second edition, Volume 2, pp. 690-700. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Harvey, J.B.J., J.P. Ryan, R. Marin III, C. Preston, N. Alvarado, C.A. Scholin, and R.C. Vrijenhoek (2011). Robotic sampling, in situ monitoring, and molecular detection of marine zooplankton. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology413: 60-70, doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.11.022.

Robidart, J.C., C.M. Preston, R.W. Paerl, K.A. Turk, A.C. Mosier, C.A. Francis, C.A. Scholin, and J.P. Zehr (2012). Seasonal dynamics of Synechococcus and Thaumarchaeal microbial populations in Monterey Bay resolved in real time with remote in situ instrumentation. The ISME Journal, 6: 513-523, doi: 10.1038/ismej.2011.127.

Saito, M.A., V.V. Bulygin, D.M. Moran, C. Taylor, and C. Scholin (2011). Examination of microbial proteome preservation techniques applicable to autonomous environmental sample collection. Frontiers in Aquatic Microbiology2: doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00215.

Preston, C.M., A. Harris, J.P. Ryan, B. Roman, R. Marin III, S. Jensen, C. Everlove, J. Birch, J.M. Dzenitis, D. PargettM. Adachi, K. Turk, J.P. Zehr, and C.A. Scholin (2011). Underwater application of quantitative PCR on an ocean mooring. PLoS ONE6:e22522, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022522.

Ottesen, E.A., R. Marin III, C.M. Preston, C.R. Young, J.P. Ryan, C.A. Scholin, and E.F. DeLong (2011). Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton. The ISME Journal5: 1881-1895, doi: 10.1038/ismej.2011.70.

Zehr, J.P., J. Robidart, and C. Scholin (2011). Marine microorganisms, biogeochemical cycles, and global climate change. Microbe Magazine, 6: 169-175.

Ryan, J., D. Greenfield, R. Marin III, C. Preston, B. Roman, S. Jensen, D. Pargett, J. Birch, C. Mikulski, G. Doucette, and C. Scholin (2011). Harmful phytoplankton ecology studies using an autonomous molecular analytical and ocean observing network. Limnology and Oceanography56: 1255-1272, doi: 10.4319/lo.2011.56.4.1255.

Marin III, R., and C. Scholin (2010). Sandwich Hybridization.  In: Microscopic and molecular methods for quantitative phytoplankton analysis (Chapter 12), edited by B. Karlson, C. Cusack, and E. Bresnan, E.. IOC Manuals and Guides, no. 55. (IOC/2010/MG/55)  Paris, UNESCO. 110 pp.

Scholin, C.. (2010).  What are “ecogenomic sensors?” A review and thoughts for the future. Ocean Science 6: 51-60.

Doucette, G.J., C.M. Mikulski, K.L. Jones, K.L. King, D.I. Greenfield, R. Marin III, S. Jensen, B. Roman, C.T. Elliott, C.A. Scholin (2009).  Remote, subsurface detection of the algal toxin domoic acid onboard the Environmental Sample Processor: assay development and initial field trials.  Harmful Algae 8:880-888.

Scholin, C., G. Doucette, S. Jensen, B. Roman, D. Pargett, R. Marin III, C. Preston, W. Jones, J. Feldman, C. Everlove, A. Harris, N. Alvarado, E. Massion, J. Birch, D. Greenfield, R. Vrijenhoek, C. Mikulski, K. Jones (2009). Remote detection of marine microbes, small invertebrates, harmful algae and biotoxins using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP).  Oceanography 22:158-167

Preston, C., R. Marin III, S. Jenson, J. Feldman, E. Massion, E. DeLong, M. Suzuki, K. Wheeler, D. Cline, N. Alvarado, and C. Scholin (2009).  Near real-time, autonomous detection of marine bacterioplankton on a coastal mooring in Monterey Bay, California, using rRNA-targeted DNA probes.  Environmental Microbiology 11:1168-1180. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01848.x

Haywood, A.J., C.A. Scholin, R. Marin III, K. Petrik, R. Pigg, M. Garrett, K. A. Steidinger, and C. Heil (2009).  Detection of Karenia brevis in Florida coastal waters using sandwich hybridization assays in two formats. p 95-100. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety. Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 71. Blenheim, Marlborough, New Zealand. 355 pp.

Greenfield, D., R. Marin III, G.J. Doucette, C. Mikulski, S. Jensen, B. Roman, N. Alvarado, and C.A. Scholin (2008).  Field applications of the second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) for remote detection of harmful algae: 2006-2007.  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6: 667-679.

Scholin, C.A., G.J. Doucette, and A.D. Cembella (2008).  Prospects for developing automated systems for in situ detection of harmful algae and their toxins.  In: M. Babin, C.S. Roesler and J.J. Cullen (eds.) Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms, pp 413-462, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, France.

Mikulski, C.M., Y.T. Park, K.L. Jones, C.K. Lee, W.A. Lim, C.A. Scholin, G.J. Doucette (2008).  Development and filed application of rRNA-targeted probes for the detection of Cochlodinium ploykrikoides in Korean coastal waters using whole cell and sandwich hybridization formats.  Harmful Algae 7: 347–359.

Jones, W.J., C. Preston, R. Marin III, C. Scholin, R. Vrijenhoek  (2007).  A Robotic Molecular Method for in situ Detection of Marine Invertebrate Larvae.  Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 540-550

Haywood, A.J., C. A. Scholin, R. Marin III, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil and J. Ray (2007).  Molecular detection of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) and closely related species using ribosomal RNA probes and a semi-automated sandwich hybridization assay.  Journal of Phycology 43:1271–1286

John Paul,  Chris Scholin, Ger van den Engh, Mary Jane Perry (2007).  In situ Instrumentation.  Oceanography 20: 58-66.

Roman, B., C. Scholin, S. Jensen, E. Massion, R, Marin III, C. Preston, D. Greenfield, W. Jones, and K. Wheeler (2007).  Controlling a Robotic Marine Water Sampler with the Ruby Scripting Language.  Journal of American Laboratory Automation 12: 56-61.

Greenfield, D.I., R. Marin III, S. Jensen, E. Massion, B. Roman, J. Feldman, C. Scholin (2006). Application of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) methodology for quantifying Pseudo-nitzschia australis using ribosomal RNA-targeted probes in sandwich and fluorescent in situ hybridization.  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 4: 426-435.

Metfies, K., K. Töbe, C. Scholin, and L.K. Medlin (2006).  Laboratory and field applications of ribosomal RNA probes to aid the detection and monitoring of harmful algae.  In: Ecology of Harmful Algae (Granéli, E., and Turner, J.T. eds), pp. 311-325.  Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Lundholm, N., Ø. Moestrup, Y. Kotaki, C. Scholin, P. Miller (2006).  Inter- and intraspecific variation of the Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima-complex (Bacillariophyceae) illustrated by rRNA probes, morphological data and phylogenetic analyses identification of P. decipiensand P. dolorosa spp. Nov.  Journal of Phycology 42: 464-481.

O’Halloran, C., M.W. Silver, T.R. Holman and C.A. Scholin (2006).  Heterosigma akashiwo in Central California Waters.  Harmful Algae 5: 124-132.

Goffredi, S.K., W. Jones, C. Scholin, R. Marin, S. Hallam, R.C. Vrijenhoek ( 2006).  Molecular detection of marine larvae.  Marine Biotechnology 8: 149-160.

Ayers K, Rhodes L, Tyrrell J, Gladstone M, Scholin C.  (2005).  International accreditation of sandwich hybridisation assay format DNA probes for micro-algae.  New Zealand J. Marine and Freshwater Res. 39: 1225–1231.

Anderson, D.M., D.M. Kulis, B.A. Keafer, K.E. Gribble, R.Marin and C.A. Scholin (2005).  Identification and enumeration of Alexandrium spp. from the Gulf of Maine using molecular probes.  Deep-Sea Research II  52: 2467-2490.

LaGier, M.J., C.A. Scholin, J.W. Fell, J.Wang and K.D. Goodwin (2005).  An electrochemical RNA hybridization assay for detection of the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 1251-1261.

Babin, M., J.J. Cullen, C.S. Roesler, P.L. Donaghay, G.J. Doucette, M. Kahru, M.R. Lewis, C.A. Scholin, M.E. Sieracki, and H.M. Sosik (2005).  New approaches and technologies for observing harmful algal blooms.  Oceanography 18: 210-227.

Ryan, J.P., H.M. Dierssen, R.M. Kudela, C.A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J.M. Sullivan, A.M. Fisher, E.V., Rienecker, P.R. McEnany, and F.P. Chavez (2005).  Coastal Ocean Physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California.  Oceanography 18: 246-255.

Matweyou, J.A., D.A. Stockwell, C.A. Scholin, S. Hall, V.L. Trainer, J.D. Ray, T.E. Whitledge, A.R. Childers, F.G. Plumley (2004).  Use of Alexandrium rRNA targeted probes to predict PSP events on Kodiak Island, Alaska.  In: K. A. Steidinger, J. H. Landsberg, C. R. Tomas and G. A. Vargo (eds.) Harmful Algae 2002, pp. 267-269.  Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Miller, P.E., R. Marin III, C. Scholin, J.C. Goldman, G. Doucette, C. Powell (2004). Variation in reactivity of rRNA-targeted probes towards Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries grown in nitrate- and silicate-limited continuous cultures. In K. A. Steidinger, J. H. Landsberg, C. R. Tomas and G. A. Vargo (eds.) Harmful Algae 2002, pp. 270-272. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Rhodes, L., A. Haywood, J. Adamson, K. Ponikla, C. Scholin (2004).  DNA probes for the rapid detection of Karenia species in New Zealand’s coastal waters. In K. A. Steidinger, J. H. Landsberg, C. R. Tomas and G. A. Vargo (eds.) Harmful Algae 2002, pp. 273-275. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Scholin, C.A., E. Vrieling, L. Peperzak, L. Rhodes and P. Rublee (2003).  Detection of HAB species using lectin, antibody and DNA probes.  In:  G.M. Hallegraeff,  D.M. Anderson  A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, pp. 131-64. Paris, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO. (Vol. 11. Second Edition).

Tyrrell, J.V., L.B. Connell and C.A. Scholin (2002). Monitoring for Heterosigma akashiwo using a sandwich hybridization assay.  Harmful Algae 1:205-214.

Peperzak, L., B. Sandee, C. Scholin, P. Miller and L. Van Nieuwerburgh (20010.  Application and flow cytometric detection of antibody and rRNA probes to Gymnodinium mikimotoi (Dinophyceae) and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae).  In: G. M. Hallegraeff, S. I. Blackburn, C. J. Bolch and R. J. Lewis [Eds.]. Harmful Algal Blooms 2000, pp 206-209.  Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Rhodes, L., C.A. Scholin, J.V. Tyrrell, J. Adamson and K. Todd, K.  (2001).  The integration of DNA probes into New Zealand’s routine phytoplankton monitoring programs. In: G. M. Hallegraeff, S. I. Blackburn, C. J. Bolch and R. J. Lewis (eds). Harmful Algal Blooms 2000, pp. 429-432. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Tyrrell, J.V., C.A. Scholin, P.R. Berguist and P.L. Berguist (2001).  Detection and enumeration of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.  Phycologia 40: 457-467.

Rhodes, L.L., J. Adamson, and C. Scholin (2000).  Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand.  New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34:463-467.

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin (2000).  On detection of Pseudo-nitzschia species using rRNA-targeted probes: sample fixation and stability.  Journal of Phycology 36: 238-250.

Scholin, C.A., F. Gulland, G. Doucette and others ( 2000).  Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom.  Nature 403: 80-84.

Scholin, C., R, Marin, P. Miller, G. Doucette, C. Powell, J. Howard., P. Haydock and J. Ray (1999).  Application of DNA probes and a receptor binding assay for detection of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species and domoic acid activity in cultured and natural samples.  Journal of Phycology 35: 1356-1367.

Parsons, M.L., C. Scholin, G. Doucette, G.A. Fryxell, Q. Dortch and T.M. Soniat (1999).  Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) in Louisiana coastal waters: molecular probe field trials, genetic variability and domoic acid analyses. Journal of Phycology 35: 1368-1378.

Bates, S.S., Scholin, C.A., Ferguson, M. & Leger, C.  (1999).  Application of ribosomal RNA-targeted probes to detect Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pungens in Atlantic Canadian waters.  Canadian Technical Reports of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences  2261:63-67.

Rhodes, L., C. Scholin and I Garthwaite (1998).  Pseudo-nitzschia in New Zealand and the role of DNA probes and immunoassays in refining marine biotoxin monitoring programmes.  Natural Toxins 6: 105-111.

Scholin, C., G. Massion, E. Mellinger, M. Brown, D. Wright and D. Cline (1998).  The development and application of molecular probes and novel instrumentation for detection of harmful algae.  Ocean Community Conference ’98 Proceedings, Marine Technology Society, Vol. 1 pp. 367-370.

Scholin, C.A. and D.M. Anderson (1998).  Detection and quantification of HAB species using antibody and DNA probes: progress to date and future research objectives. In: Regura, B., Blanko, J., Fernandez, M.L. and Wyatt, T [Eds.], Harmful Algae.  Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO pp. 253-257.

Rhodes, L., C. Scholin, I. Garthwaite, A. Haywood and A. Thomas (1998).  Domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species educed by whole cell DNA probe-based and immunochemical assays.  In: Regura, B., Blanko, J., Fernandez, M.L. and Wyatt, T [Eds.], Harmful Algae.  Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO pp. 274-277.

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin (1998).  Identification and enumeration of cultured and wild Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) using species-specific LSU rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes and filter-based whole cell hybridization.  Journal of Phycology 34: 371-382.

Scholin, C.A. (1998). Development of nucleic acid probe-based diagnostics for identifying and enumerating harmful algal bloom species.  In: Anderson, D.M., Hallegraeff, G.M. and Cembella A.D. [Eds.], The Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms.  NATO Advanced Study Institute Series.  Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg pp. 337-349.

Scholin, C.A. (1998).  Morphological, genetic and biogeographic relationships of Alexandrium tamarenseA. catenella and A. fundyense.  In: Anderson, D.M., Hallegraeff, G.M. and Cembella A.D. [Eds.], The Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms.  NATO Advanced Study Institute Series. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. pp 13-27.

Cangelosi, G.A., A.M. Hamlin, R. Marin III, C.A. Scholin.  Detection of stable pre-rRNA in toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species (1997).  Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 4859-4865.

Scholin, C.A., P. Miller, K. Buck, F. Chavez, P. Harris, P. Haydock, J. Howard and G. Cangelosi (1997).  Detection and quantification of Pseudo-nitzschia australis in cultured and natural populations using LSU rRNA-targeted probes.  Limnology and Oceanography 42: 1265-1272.

Scholin, C.A. and D.M. Anderson (1996).  LSU rDNA-based RFLP assays for discriminating species and strains of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae).  Journal of Phycology 32: 1022-1035.

Miller, P.E. and C.A. Scholin (1996).  Identification of cultured Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) using species-specific LSU rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes.  Journal of Phycology 32: 646-655.

Scholin, C. and D.M. Anderson (1996).  Identification of Alexandrium species and strains using RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified LSU rDNA.  In: Oshima, Y and Fukuyo, Y [Eds.] Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms,Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.  pp 451-454.

Scholin, C., P. Miller, K. Buck, F. Chavez, G. Cangelosi, P. Haydock, J. Howard and P. Harris (1996).  DNA Probe-based detection of harmful algal species using Pseudo-nitzschia species as models.  In: Oshima, Y and Fukuyo, Y [Eds.] Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms,Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.  pp 439-442.

Vrieling, E., R. Koeman, C. Scholin, P. Scheerman, L. Peperzak, M. Veenhuis and W. Gieskes (1996).  Detection of a domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species in the Dutch Wadden Sea by electron microscopy and molecular probes.  European Journal of Phycology31: 333-340.

Scholin, C.A., K.R. Buck, T. Britschgi, J. Cangelosi and F.P. Chavez (1996).  Identification of Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) using rRNA-targeted probes in whole cell and sandwich hybridization formats.  Phycologia 35: 190-197.

Scholin, C.A., G.M. Hallegraeff and D.M. Anderson (1995).  Molecular evolution of the Alexandrium tamarense “species complex” (Dinophyceae): dispersal in the North American and West Pacific regions.  Phycologia 34: 472-485.

Scholin, C.A. and D.M. Anderson (1994).  Identification of species and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae).  I.  RFLP analysis of SSU rRNA genes.  Journal of Phycology 30: 744-754.

Scholin, C.A., M. Herzog, M.L. Sogin and D.M Anderson (1994).  Identification of group and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae).  II. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the LSU rRNA gene.  Journal of Phycology 30: 999-1011.

Scholin, C.A., M.C. Villac, K.R. Buck, J.M. Krupp, D.A. Powers, G.A. Fryxell and F.P. Chavez (1994).  Ribosomal DNA sequences discriminate among toxic and non-toxic Pseudonitzschia species.  Natural Toxins 2: 152-165.

Judge, B.S., C.A. Scholin and D. M. Anderson (1993).  RFLP analysis of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene of globally distributed populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium.  Biological Bulletin 185: 329-330.

Scholin, C.A. and D.M. Anderson (1993).  Population analysis of toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium species using ribosomal RNA signature sequences.  In: Smayda, T.J., and Shimizu, Y. [Eds.], Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea.  Elsevier, New York, pp. 95-102.

Scholin, C.A., D.M. Anderson and M. Sogin (1993).  The existence of two distinct small-subunit rRNA genes in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense.  Journal of Phycology 29: 209-216.

Lenaers, G., C. A. Scholin, Y. Bhaud, D. Saint-Hilaire and M. Herzog. 1991.  A molecular phylogeny of dinoflagellate protists (Pyrrhophyta) inferred from the sequence of the 24S rRNA divergent domains D1 and D8.  Journal of Molecular Evolution 32: 53-63.

Yoch, D.C., J. Li, C-Z. Hu and C.A. Scholin (1988).  Ammonia switch-off of nitrogenase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Methylosinus trichosporium: no evidence for Fe protein modification.  Archives of Microbiology 150: 1-5.


Selected Contributions

Pargett, D.M., S.D. Jensen, B.A. Roman, C.M. Preston, W. Ussler III, P.R. Girguis, R. Marin III, J.M. Birch, and C.A. Scholin (2013). Deep water instrument for microbial identification, quantification, and archiving. Proceedings of Marine Technology Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans 2013, San Diego, California, 6 pp.

Roman, B., C. Scholin, S. Jensen, R. Marin III, E. Massion, and J. Feldman (2004).  The 2nd generation environmental sample processor: Evolution of a robotic underwater biochemical laboratory.  Proceedings, OCEANS 2005 MTS/IEEE Conference. Washington, D.C..  Marine Technology Society, Columbia, MD.  ISBN CD-ROM 0-933957-33-5.

Scholin, C. S. Jensen, B. Roman, E. Massion, R. Marin, C. Preston, D. Greenfield, W. Jones, K. Wheeler (2006).  The Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) – An Autonomous Robotic Device for Detecting Microorganisms Remotely using Molecular Probe Technology.  Proceedings, OCEANS 2006 MTS/IEEE Conference. Boston, MA.  Marine Technology Society, Columbia, MD.


Selected Reports

Scholin, C.A.  2003.  Molecular Biological Technologies Applicable to Autonomous and Lagrangian Platforms (invited white paper presented at the Autonomous and Lagrangian Platforms and Sensors (ALPS) workshop, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, March ’03).

Littaker, W., C. Scholin, G.R. Vasta.  2000.  Molecular approaches for identification and environmental detection of Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates.  Workshop held at the Center of Marine Biotechnology September 1999, Baltimore, MD.

Scholin, C.A., N. Wainwright and G.M. Hallegraeff.  1994.  Feasibility of developing a rapid diagnostic test for toxic dinoflagellates in ships’ ballast water. Report for the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service.



Anderson, D.M., and Scholin, C.A.  1996.  Genetic markers and methods of identifying Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species.  US Pat. No. 5582983.

Scholin, C.A., Haydock, P., and Cangelosi, G.  1999.  Detection of toxigenic marine pennate diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia US Pat. No. 5958689.

Scholin, C.A., Massion, E.I., Wright, D.K., Cline, D.E., Mellinger, E., Brown, M.  2001.  Aquatic autosampler device. US Pat. No. 6187530.

Tyrrell, J.V., Scholin, C.A., Bergquist, P., and Bergquist, P.  2004.  Compostion and methods for detecting Raphidophytes. US Pat. No. 6787648