Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Stephanie L. Bush
Postdoctoral Fellow

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
7700 Sandholdt Road
Moss Landing, CA 95039
Phone: (831) 775-1891
Fax: (831) 775-1620
email: sbush

Squid dissections aboard the R/V Western Flyer

Monterey Bay Aquarium – Tentacles Exhibit

I am working with the Monterey Bay Aquarium on their exhibit “Tentacles: The Lives of Octopuses, Cuttlefishes, and Squid”, that opened in April 2014. This exhibit showcases the diversity and ecology of cephalopod molluscs. One of the goals is to use MBARI’s expertise and technological resources to acquire deep-sea squids and octopuses to expose the public to these little known animals.

cuttlefish and eggs

Stumpy cuttlefish and eggs

octopus suckers

Suckers of a Giant Pacific Octopus

Flamboyant cuttlefish eggs

Developing flamboyant cuttlefish eggs


Monterey Bay Aquarium Tentacles Exhibit


For this, the MBA has a number of research cruises for collecting these animals. I coordinate these cruises and serve a chief scientist on them. The animals we collect are then kept in MBARI’s cold, dark-room or transported to the aquarium where we constantly try to improve our feeding and housing methods in order to keep these animals alive and healthy.

Some of the deep-sea species that we are interested in displaying:

  • Vampyroteuthis infernalis*

  • Octopoteuthis deletron

  • Chiroteuthis calyx

  • Japetella diaphana*

  • Opisthoteuthis sp. *

*have been displayed at MBA
Opisthoteuthis sp

Opisthoteuthis sp. ('adorabilis')


The cirrate octopus, Opisthoteuthis sp., that we have collected and displayed multiple times turns out to be an undescribed species. My colleagues at the aquarium and I are working to formally describe it. In the meantime, Science Friday made a video about this little octopus which garnered much local, national, and international attention.


Pteropod Biodiversity

Pteropods, or sea butterflies, are gastropods (snails) modified for life in the water column – they have very reduced, in some cases absent, shells and the muscular foot has evolved into a set of flapping wings to propel the animal. Pteropods are a numerous and diverse part of the marine plankton, but we currently have a limited understanding of the diversity. I am using molecular techniques in concert with traditional morphological methods to determine species delineations in this group.

Clio recurva

Thecosomata Identification Images

(all images copyright Stephanie Bush)
gymnosome pteropod

Gymnosomata Identification Images

(all images copyright Stephanie Bush)


Past Research

Deep-sea squid ink release

Ink release by coleoid cephalopods (squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes) is familiar to many people and it's obvious cloaking abilties has led to a long held assumption that it is primarily a visual defense. We assume the dark ink mass distracts and/or confuses a predator so a cephalopod can escape or hide within the ink. Scientists believed that ink release would be useless as a defense for deep-sea cephalopods because light is attenuated by water so that much of the deep sea is dark. A dark ink cloud must be useless. However, observations by the MBARI Midwater Ecology lab using Remotely Operated Vehicles indicated that midwater squid living below the photic zone do release ink throughout their depth range. I reviewed ROV dive footage and made directed observations to determine which species released ink, at what depths, and the concurrent behaviors (Bush & Robison, 2007).

Taonius cf. borealis releasing ink

Videos of deep-sea squid releasing ink



Reactions to deep-sea squid ink

If we see a deep-sea squid release ink in response to another animal or watch midwater animals react to squid ink, we could better understand why squids release ink. Unfortunately, observations of species interactions in the deep sea are rare. To determine midwater animal reactions to squid ink, I have to create my own ‘interactions’. With the help of MBARI ROV pilots and technicians, I designed an ‘Ink Ejector’ to release collected deep-sea squid ink in the water column. Encounters with squid and fish allow us to observe whether animals behave differently when ink is released.

Vampyroteuthis infernalis and Ink Ejector


Deep-sea squid ink chemistry

Ink is used in different ways by different species; it is released in different forms, at different depths, even has subtle differences in color. One possible defensive function is that ink has important chemical properties. Ink may contain constituents that are distasteful to predators and/or attractive to predators. If ink is distasteful, and a predator mistakes an ink pseudomorph for a squid, it may then concentrate hunting efforts on another prey type, such as fish. If ink is attractive it may distract a predator while the squid escapes. I have collected ink from 15 species of deep-sea cephalopod and several shallow-dwelling species to compare their chemical composition using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. This method separates molecules within a mixture, then gives the molecular mass of each, allowing comparisons of molecules present in inks from different species and us to pick out molecules of interest for further study.


Behaving in the dark

Shallow-water cephalopods are well-known for their body patterning, consisting of changes in skin coloration, skin texture, body posture, and body movement. These are used in visual communication with other cephalopods, potential prey, and predators. Scientists reasoned that body patterning in species living in low-light environments, such as the deep sea, would have limited body patterning. I made the first in-depth observations of a deep-sea squid species to test the hypothesis that deep-sea cephalopods have limited coloration, posturing, and movement. Octopoteuthis deletron is capable of many body patterns, comparable in number to shallow-water squids (Bush et al., 2009).

Octopoteuthis deletron behavior

Videos of Octopoteuthis deletron

Squid arm autotomy

The midwater squid Octopoteuthis deletron's eight arms are tipped with large bioluminescent photophores. In situ and laboratory observations of O. deletron and its congenerics O. neilseni and O. megaptera (Young & Vecchione 2006) indicate that these squids are able to autotomize, or voluntarily release, part of an arm. We have observed shed arms continue to move and the arm-tip photophores bioluminesce. This behavior is hypothesized to be defensive, whereby it startles, distracts, or confuses a potential predator. I am using data collected on MBARI Remotely Operated Vehicle expeditions as well as laboratory observations of collected specimens to determine how often individuals are observed with missing arms, what stimuli trigger arm loss, what are the associated behaviors, and whether the animal has control over arm loss. Histological sections of collected specimens' arms are being examined to determine the breakage mechanism.

Octopoteuthis deletron


Other information:

Curriculum Vitae

UC Berkeley webpage

Squid science: Field notes from Stephanie Bush - UC Museum of Paleontology feature



Bush, S. L., Robison, B. H., & R. L. Caldwell. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural and bioluminescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216: 7-22.

Bush, S. L., and B. H. Robison. 2007. Ink utilization by mesopelagic squid. Marine Biology. 152(3): 485-494.

Young, Richard E. and Vecchione, Michael. 2006. Octopoteuthis Ruppell 1844. Version 24 April 2006. in The Tree of Life Web Project,


Last updated: Oct. 12, 2015