Linda Kuhnz

Senior Research Technician

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

7700 Sandholdt Road

Moss Landing, CA 95039

Phone: (831) 775-1840


Linda Kuhnz is a marine benthic ecologist specializing in deep sea habitats. She works on a variety of projects, including long-term assessments and anthropogenic disturbance. Linda conducts habitat characterization studies in benthic ecosystems using quantitative underwater video and seafloor samples. This work includes the identification of small animals that live in marine sediments (macrofauna), and larger invertebrates and fishes that live on the seafloor or just above it (megafauna).  Over-arching work entails identifying deep-sea animals, evaluating behaviors and interactions, and documenting geological and habitat features in hundreds of hours of seafloor imagery each year.


M.S., Marine Science, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California State University
B.S., Marine Biology, Chemistry minor, San Jose State University

Select projects Video productions

Other major projects

  • Gakkel Ridge and the North Pole 2001


Deep-Sea Discoveries: Squid Graveyard
Escaping predators: Finding refuge on a deep-living sea cucumber
Our ever-changing deep sea
Deep-sea Physics: Water pressure and the incredible shrinking head
Deep-sea snow blower vents
Challenges of the Deep Educational DVD
Trash in the deep sea: Bringing a hidden problem to light
Life on the edge: Is ocean acidification a threat to deep-sea life?
Climate Variation, Food Availability, and Deep-Sea Ecosystems
Robotic laboratory monitors bacteria at undersea mound 
Carbon dioxide experiments on the seafloor

Just for fun
Eerie Critters of the Deep: Cryptic Animals
Eerie Critters of the Deep: Deep-Sea Nightmare
Celebrating Cephalopods
The Blob(s)
Sea Pig interview for PBS “Unusual Creatures” series
Anthology of deep-sea squids
Spooky Eyes
Predators and Scavengers
Big Teeth
Cirrate Octopus

MBARI Publications


Dornelas, M., L.H. Antao, E. Moyes, A.E. Bates, A.E. Magurran, D. Adam, A.A. Akhmetzhanova, W. Appeltans, J.M. Arcos, H. Arnold, N. Ayyappan, G. Badihi, A.H. Baird, M. Barbosa, T.E. Barreto, C. Bassler, A. Bellgrove, J. Belmaker, L. Benedetti-Checchi, B.J. Bett, A.D. Bjorkman, M. Blazewicz, S.A. Blowes, C.P. Bloch, T.C. Bonebrake, S. Boyd, M. Brandford, A.J. Brooks, J.H. Brown, H. Bruelheide, P. Budy, F. Carvalho, E. Castaneda-Moya, C.A. Chen, J.F. Chamblee, T.J. Chase, L.S. Collier, S.K. Collinge, R. Condit, E.J. Cooper, J.H.C. Cornelissen, U. Cotano, S.K. Crow, G. Damasceno, C.H. Davies, R.A. Davis, F.P. Day, S. Degraer, T.S. Doherty, T.E. Dunn, G. Durigan, J.E. Duffy, D. Edelist, G.J. Edgar, R. Elahi, S.C. Elmendorf, A. Enemar, S.K.M. Ernest, R. Escribano, M. Estiarte, B.S. Evans, T.Y. Fan, F.T. Farah, L.L. Fernandes, F.Z. Farneda, A. Fidelis, R. Fitt, A.M. Fozaa, G.A.D.C. Franco, G.E. Frank, W.R. Fraser, H. Garcia, R.C. Gatti, O. Givan, E. Gorgone-Barbosa, W.A. Gould, C. Gries, G.D. Grossman, J.R. Gutierrez, S. Hale, M.E. Harmon, J. Harte, G. Haskins, D.L. Henshaw, L. Hermanutz, P. Hidalgo, P. Higuchi, A. Hoey, G.V. Hoey, A. Hofgaard, K. Holeck, R.D. Hollister, R. Holmes, M. Hoogenboom, C. Hsieh, S.P. Hubbell, F. Huettmann, C.L. Huffard, A.H. Hurlbert, N.M. Ivanauskas, D. Janik, U. J,t, A. Jazdzewska, T. Johannessen, J. Johnstone, J. Jones, F.A.M. Jones, J. Kang, T. Kartawijaya, E.C. Keeley, D.A. Kelt, R. Kinnear, K. Klanderud, H. Knutsen, C.C. Koenig, A.R. Kortz, K. Kral, L.A. Kuhnz, C.Y. Kuo, D.J. Kushner, C. Laguionie-Marchias, L.T. Lancaster, C.M. Lee, J.S. Lefcheck, E. Levesque, D. Lightfoot, F. Lloret, J.D. Lloyd, A. Lopez-Baucells, M. Louzano, J.S. Madin, B. Magnusson, S. Malamud, I. Matthews, K.P. McFarl,, B. McGill, D. MvKnight, W.O. McLarney, J. Meador, P.L. Meserve, D.J. Metcalfe, C.F.J. Meyer, A. Michelsen, N. Milchakova, T. Moens, E. Mol,, J. Moore, C.M. Moreira, J. Miller, G. Murphy, I.H. Myers-Smith, R.W. Myster, A. Naumov, F. Neat, J.A. Nelson, M.P. Nelson, S.F. Newton, N. Norden, J.C. Oliver, E.M. Olsen, V.G. Onipchenko, K. Pabis, R.J. Pabst, A. Paquette, S. Pardede, D.M. Paterson, R. Pelissier, J. Penuelas, A. Perez-Matus, O. Pizarro, F. Pomati, E. Post, H.H.T. Prins, J.C. Priscu, P. Provoost, K.L. Prudic, E. Pulliainen, B.R. Ramesh, O.M. Ramos, A. Rassweiler, J.E. Rebelo, D.C. Reed, P.B. Reich, S.M. Remillard, A.J. Richardson, I. van Rijn, R. Rocha, V.H. Rivera-Monroy, C. Rixen, K.P. Robison, R.R. Rodrigues, D.C. Rossa-Feres, L. Rudstam, H. Ruhl, C.S. Ruz, E.M. Sampaio, N. Rybicki, A. Rypel, S. Sal, B. Salgado, F.A.M. Santos, A.P. Savassi-Coutinho, S. Scanga, J. Schmidt, R. Schooley, F. Setiawan, K.T. Shao, G.R. Shaver, S. Sherman, T.W. Sherry, J. Sicinski, C. Sievers, A.C. da Silva, F.R. da Silva, F.L. Silveira, J. Slingsby, T. Smart, S.J. Snell, N.A. Soudzilovskaia, G.B.G. Souza, F.M. Souza, V.C. Souza, C.D. Stallings, R. Stanforth, E.H. Stanley, J.M. Sterza, M. Stevens, R. Stuart-Smith, J.M. Suarez, S. Supp, J.Y. Tamashiro, S. Tarigan, G.P. Thiede, S. Thorn, A. Tolvanen, M.T.Z. Toniato, O. Totl,, R.R. Twilley, G. Vaitkus, N. Valdivia, M.I. Ballejo, T.J. Valone, C. Van Colen, J. Vanaverbeke, F. Venturoli, H.M. Verheye, M. Vianna, R.P. Vieira, T. Vrska, C.Q. Vu, L.V. Vu, R.B. Waide, C. Waldock, D. Watts, S. Webb, T. Wesotowski, E.P. White, C.E. Widdicombe, D. Wilgers, R. Williams, S.B. Williams, M. Williamson, M.R. Willig, T.J. Willis, S. Wipf, K.D. Woods, E.J. Woehler, K. Zawada, and M.L. Zettler (2018). BioTIME – A time-series database for the Anthropocene. Global Ecology and Biogeography: 760-786.

Sanamyan, K., N. Sanamyan, and L. Kuhnz (2018). A new Culeolus species (Ascidiacea) from the NE Pacific, California. Zootaxa, 4420. 10.11646/zootaxa.4420.2.8


Schoening, T., J. Durden, I. Preuss, A. Branzan Albu, A. Purser, B. De Smet, C. Dominguez-Carrió, C. Yesson, D. de Jonge, D. Lindsay, J. Schulz, K.O. Möller, K. Beisiegel, L. Kuhnz, M. Hoeberechts, N. Piechaud, S. Sharuga, and T. Treibitz (2017). Report on the Marine Imaging Workshop 2017. Research Ideas and Outcomes, 3: e13820.

Burton, E.J., L.A. Kuhnz, A.P. DeVogelaere, and J.P. Barry (2017). Sur Ridge Field Guide: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries:122.


Huffard, C.L., L.A. Kuhnz, L. Lemon, A.D. Sherman, and K.L. Smith Jr. (2016). Demographic indicators of change in a deposit-feeding abyssal holothurian community (Station M, 4000m). Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 109: 27-39.

Durden, J.M., T. Schoening, F. Althaus, A. Friedman, R. Garcia, A.G. Glover, J. Greinert, N. Jacobsen Stout, D.O.B. Jones, A. Jordt, J.W. Kaeli, K. Köser, L.A. Kuhnz, D. Lindsay, K.J. Morris, T.W. Nattkemper, J. Osterloff, H.A. Ruhl, H. Singh, M. Tran, and B.J. Bett (2016). Perspectives in visual imaging for marine biology and ecology: From acquisition to understanding. In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 54, edited by R. N. Hughes, D. J. Hughes, I. P. Smith, and A. C. Dale. CRC Press 1-72.

Dunlop, K.M., D. van Oevelen, H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, L.A. Kuhnz, and K.L. Smith Jr. (2016). Carbon cycling in the deep eastern North Pacific benthic food web: Investigating the effect of organic carbon input. Limnology and Oceanography, 61: 1956-1968.

Barry, J.P., J.R. Taylor, L.A. Kuhnz, and A.P. De Vogelaere (2016). Symbiosis between the holothurian Scotoplanes sp. A and the lithodid crab Neolithodes diomedeae on a featureless bathyal sediment plain. Marine Ecology, 38: e12396.


Wicksten, M. and L.A. Kuhnz (2015). A swimming deep-sea peneaoid shrimp photographed off California. California Fish and Game, 101: 146-148.

Laguionie-Marchais, C., L.A. Kuhnz, C.L. Huffard, H.A. Ruhl, and K.L. Smith, Jr. (2015). Spatial and temporal variation in sponge spicule patches at Station M, northeast Pacific. Marine Biology, 162: 617-624.

Kuhnz, L.A., K. Buck, C. Lovera, P.J. Whaling, and J.P. Barry (2015). Potential impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) Cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, The California Coastal Commission, and The California State Lands Commission:71.

Dunlop, K.M., L.A. Kuhnz, H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, D.W. Caress, R.G. Henthorn, B.W. Hobson, P. McGill, and K.L. Smith Jr. (2015). An evaluation of deep-sea benthic megafauna length measurements obtained with laser and stereo camera methods. Deep Sea Research I, 96: 38-48.


Taylor, J.R., A.P. DeVogelaere, E.J. Burton, O. Frey, L. Lundsten, L.A. Kuhnz, P.J. Whaling, C. Lovera, K.R. Buck, and J.P. Barry (2014). Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83: 92-106.

Kuhnz, L.A., H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, and K.L. Smith Jr. (2014). Rapid changes and long-term cycles in the benthic megafaunal community observed over 24 years in the abyssal northeast Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, 124: 1-11.

Bizzarro, J.J., K.M. Broms, M.G. Logsdon, D.A. Ebert, M.M. Yoklavich, L.A. Kuhnz, and A.P. Summers (2014). Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages. PLoS ONE, 9: e109907.


Schlining, K., S. Von Thun, L. Kuhnz, B. Schlining, L. Lundsten, N. Jacobsen Stout, L. Chaney, and J. Connor (2013). Debris in the deep: Using a 22-year video annotation database to survey marine litter in Monterey Canyon, Central California, USA. Deep Sea Research I, 79: 96-105.

Duffy, G.A., L. Lundsten, L.A. Kuhnz, and C.K. Paull (2013). A comparison of megafaunal communities in five submarine canyons off Southern California, USA. Deep Sea Research II.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, P.G. Brewer, B.A. Seibel, J.C. Drazen, M.N. Tamburri, P.J. Whaling, L. Kuhnz, and E.F. Pane (2013). The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration. Deep Sea Research II, 92: 249-260.


Holland, N.D., K.J. Osborn, and L.A. Kuhnz (2012). A new deep-sea species of harrimaniid enteropneust (Hemichordata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 125: 228-240.

Holland, N.D., L.A. Kuhnz, and K.J. Osborn (2012). Morphology of a new deep-sea acorn worm (class Enteropneusta, phylum Hemichordata): a part-time demersal drifter with externalized ovaries. Journal of Morphology, 273: 661-671.


Osborn, K.J., L.A. Kuhnz, I.G. Priede, M. Urata, A.V. Gebruk, and N.D. Holland (2011). Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

McClain, C.R., J.C. Nekola, L. Kuhnz, and J.P. Barry (2011). Local-scale faunal turnover on the deep Pacific seafloor. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 422: 193-200.

Kuhnz, L.A., J.P. Barry, K. Buck, C. Lovera, and P.J. Whaling (2011). Potential impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, The California Coastal Commission, and The California State Lands Commission:32.


Lundsten, L., K.L. Schlining, K. Frasier, S.B. Johnson, L. Kuhnz, J. Harvey, G. Clague, and R.C. Vrijenhoek (2010). Time-series analysis of six whale-fall communities in Monterey Canyon, California, USA. Deep-Sea Research Part I, 57: 1573-1584.

Barry, J., L. Kuhnz, K. Buck, C. Lovera, and P.J. Whaling (2010). Potential impacts of the MARS cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages. Report to: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Report to: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

2009 and earlier

Cline, D., D.R. Edgington, K.L. Smith, M.F. Vardaro, and L. Kuhnz (2009). An automated event detection and classification system for abyssal time-series images of Station M. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi.

Stein, D.L., J.C. Drazen, K.L. Schlining, J. Barry, and L. Kuhnz (2006). Snailfishes of Monterey Canyon: Video, photographic, and morphological observations. Journal of Fish Biology, 69: 970-986.

Kogan, I., C.K. Paull, L. Kuhnz, E.J. Burton, S. Von Thun, H.G. Greene, and J. Barry (2006). ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations and environmental impact. Continental Shelf Research, 26: 771-787.

Edgington, D.R., I. Kerkez, D. Oliver, D. Cline, R.E. Sherlock, B.H. Robison, L. Kuhnz, M.A. Ranzato, and P. Perona (2006). Detecting, tracking and classifying animals in underwater video. Ocean Sciences Meeting.

Edgington, D.R., I. Kerkez, D. Oliver, D. Cline, R.E. Sherlock, B.H. Robison, L. Kuhnz, D. Walther, M.A. Ranzato, and P. Perona (2005). Detection and classification of selected midwater and benthic organisms in underwater video. In: Proceedings of the International Ocean Research Conference, Paris, France.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, and P.J. Whaling (2005). Utility of deep-sea CO2 release experiments in understanding the biology of a high CO2 ocean: Effects of hypercapnia on deep-sea meiofauna. Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans, 110.

Edgington, D.R., I. Kerkez, D. Oliver, L. Kuhnz, D. Cline, D. Walther, and L. Itti (2004). Detecting benthic megafauna in underwater video. EOS: Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 85: F1086.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C.F. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, P.J. Whaling, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2004). Effects of direct ocean CO2 injection on deep-sea meiofauna. Journal of Oceanography, 60: 759-766.

Kogan, I., C.K. Paull, L. Kuhnz, E. Burton, S. von Thun, H.G. Greene, and J.P. Barry (2003). Environmental impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable.MBARI/Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary:80.

Barry, J.P., B.A. Seibel, J.C. Drazen, M.N. Tamburri, K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, E.T. Peltzer, K. Osborn, P.J. Whaling, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2003). Deep-sea field experiments on the biological impacts of direct deep-sea CO2 injection. In: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Alexandria, Virginia, 1–7.