Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) publications


Evans, S. J. Birch, J. Breier Jr, M. Jakuba, M. Saito, and J. Robidart.  2019.  Ocean robots uncover microbial secrets.  Microbiology Today pp 18-21., Feb 2019.

Zhang, Y., J. Ryan, B. Kieft, B. Hobson, R. McEwen, M. Godin, J. Harvey, J. Bellingham, J. Birch, C. Scholin, F. Chavez.  2019.  Targeted Sampling by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.  Submitted to Frontiers in Marine Science, eds V. Zykov and O. Pizarro.

Nowinski, B., J. Motard-Côté, M. Landa, C. Preston, C. Scholin, J. Birch, R. Keine, M. Moran.  2019.  Microdiversity and Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Genes.  Submitted to Environmental Microbiology 11-17-2018.


Brett W. Hobson, Brian Kieft, Ben Raanan, Yanwu Zhang, James Birch, John P. Ryan, Francisco P. Chavez.  2018. An Autonomous Vehicle-Based Open Ocean Lagrangian Observatory. IEEE AUV2018 Proceedings.  Porto, Portugal.

Birch, J. B. Barone, E. DeLong, G. Foreman, K. Gomes, B. Hobson, S. Jensen, D. Karl, B. Kieft, R. Marin III, T. O’Reilly, D. Pargett, S. Poulos, C. Preston, H. Ramm, B. Roman, A. Romano, J. Ryan, C. Scholin, W. Ussler, S. Wilson, K. Yamahara, Y. Zhang.  2018.  Autonomous Targeted Sampling of the Deep Chlorophyll maximum layer in a subtropical north Pacific eddy.  Proceedings IEEE Oceans, Charleston, SC Oct 22-25, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2018.8604898

Birch, J.  2018.  Collecting and processing samples in remote and dangerous places: the Environmental Sample Processor as a case study.  Pure and Applied Chemistry 90 (10): 1625-1630. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2018-0201

Scholin, C., Birch,J., Jensen, S., Marin III, R., Massion, E., Pargett, D., Preston, C., Roman, B., Ussler III, W. 2018. The quest to develop ecogenomic sensors: A 25-year history of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) as a case study.  Oceanography 30:100-113.  https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.427


Olins, HC, Rogers DR, Preston C, Ussler III W, Pargett D, Jensen S, Roman B, Birch JM, Scholin CA, Haroon MF and Girguis PR. 2017. Co-registered Geochemistry and Metatranscriptomics Reveal Unexpected Distributions of Microbial Activity within a Hydrothermal Vent Field. Front. Microbiol. 8:1042. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01042

Baussant, T., A. Krolicka, M. Maeland, S. Ramanand, C. Boccadoro, C. Preston, R. Marin III, J. Birch, and C. Scholin in Arctic Approach, G. Sand, S. Dahle, O. A. Misund (eds). 2017.  Can we use microbes to tell us about the presence of oil in water?  Pp. 153-166. Fagbokforlaget.

Ryan, J., R. Kudela, J. Birch, M. Blum, H. Bowers, F. Chavez, G. Doucette, K. Hayashi, R. Marin III, C. Mikulski, J. Pennington, C. Scholin, G. smith, A. Woods, Y. Zhang.  2017.  Causality of an extreme harmful algal bloom in Monterey Bay, California during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific warm anomaly.  Geophysical Research Letters. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL072637

Bowers, H.A., J. Ryan, R. Marin III, J. Birch, and C. Scholin.  2017.  Sandwich hybridization probes for the detection of Pseudo-nitzschia species: an update to existing probes and a description of new probes.  Harmful Algae 70:37-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2017.10.005


Bowers, H.A., Marin, R.III, Birch, J.A., Scholin, C.A., and Doucette, G.J. (2016). Recovery and identification of Pseudo-nitzschia frustlules from natural samples acquired using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). Journal of Phycology, 52:135–140. http://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12369

Herfort, L., Seaton, C., Wilkin, M., Roman, B., Preston, C., Marin, R., Seitz, K., Smith, M., Haynes, V., Scholin, C., Baptista, A., Simon, H. (2016). Use of continuous, real-time observations and model simulations to achieve autonomous, adaptive sampling of microbial processes with a robotic sampler.  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 14:50-67. http://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10069


Yamahara, K.M., Demir-Hilton, E., Preston, C.M., Marin III, R., Pargett, D., Roman, B., Jensen, S., Birch, J.M., Boehm, A.B., Scholin, C.A. (2015). Simultaneous monitoring of fecal indicators and harmful algae using an in in situ auntomous sensor. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 61130-138. http://doi.org/10.1111/lam.12432

Aylward, F.O., Eppley, J.M., Smith, J.M., Chavez, F.P., Scholin, C.A., DeLong, E.F. (2015). Ocean basin-wide community transcriptome dynamics are conserved among microbial plankton spanning all three domains of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 112: 5433-5448.

Varaljay, V.A., Robidart, J., Preston, C.M.,  Gifford, S.M., Durham, B.P., Burns, A.S., Ryan, J.P., Marin III, R., Kiene, R.P., Zehr, J.P., Scholin, C.A., Moran, M.A. (2015). Single-Taxon Field Measurements of Bacterial Gene Regulation Controlling DMSP Fate. The ISME Journal, 9: 1677–1686. http://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2015.94

Seegers, B.N., Birch, J.M., Marin, R. III, Scholin, C.A., Caron, D.A., Seubert, E.L., Howard, M.D.A., Roberston, G.L., Jones, B.H. (2015). Subsurface seeding of surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored Environmental Sample Processors, and satellite remote sensing in Southern California. Limnology and Oceanography, 60: 754 -764.

Caron, D.A., Gellene, A., Smith, G.J., Seubert, E.L., Campbell, V., Sukhatme, G.S., Seegers, B., Jones, B.H., Lie, A.A.Y., Terrado, R., Howard, M.D.A., Kudela, R.M., Hayashi, K., Ryan, J., Birch, J., Demir-Hilton, E., Yamahara, K., Scholin, C., Mengel, M., Robertson, G. (2015). Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.09.013


Ottesen, E.A., Young, C.R., Gifford, S.M., Eppley, J.M., Marin III, R., Schuster, S.C., Scholin, C.A., DeLong, E.F. (2014). Multispecies diel transcriptional oscillations in open ocean heterotrophic bacterial assemblages. Science, 345: 207-212. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1252476

Robidart, J.C., Church, M.J., Ryan, J.P., Ascani, F., Wilson, S.T., Bombar, D., Marin, R. III, Richards, K.J., Karl, D.M., Scholin, C.A., Zehr, J.P. (2014).  Ecogenomic sensor reveals controls on N2-fixing microorganisms in the North Pacific Ocean. The ISME Journal 8, 1175–1185. http://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.244


Ussler, W. III, Tavormina, P., Preston, C., Marin III, R., Pargett, D., Jensen, S., Roman, B., Shah, S., Girguis, P.R., Birch, J.M., Orphan, V., Scholin, C. (2013).  Autonomous in situ quantitative PCR amplification of aerobic methanotroph genes in the deep sea. Environmental Science and Technology, 47: 9339−9346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4023199

Ottesen, E.A., Young, C.R., Eppley, J.M., Ryan, J.P., Chavez, F.P., Scholin, C.A., DeLong, E.F. (2013). Rhythm and synchrony of gene expression among sympatric marine microbial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110: E488-E497. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222099110

Scholin, C.A. (2013). Ecogenomic Sensors. In: Levin S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, second edition, Volume 2, pp. 690-700. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.


Harvey, J.B.C, Ryan, J.P., Marin III, R., Preston, C.M., Alvarado, N., Scholin, C.A., Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2012). Robotic sampling, in situ monitoring and molecular detection of marine zooplankton. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 413: 60–70. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2011.11.022

Robidart, J.C, Preston, C.M., Paerl, R.W., Turk, K.A., Mosier, A.C., Francis, C.A., Scholin, C.A., Zehr, J.P. (2012). Seasonal dynamics of Synechococcus and Thaumarchaeal microbial populations in Monterey Bay resolved in real time with remote in situ instrumentation. The ISME Journal, 6: 513-523. http://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.127


Saito, M.A., Bulygin, V.V., Moran, D.M., Taylor, C., Scholin, C. (2011). Examination of microbial proteome preservation techniques applicable to autonomous environmental sample collection. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2: 215. http://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2011.00215

Preston, C.M., Harris, A., Ryan, J.P., Roman, B., Marin III, R., Jensen, S., Everlove, C., Birch, J., Dzenitis, J.M., Pargett, D., Adachi, M., Turk, K., Zehr, J.P., Scholin, C.A. (2011). Underwater application of quantitative PCR on an ocean mooring.  PLoS ONE, 6(8): e22522. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022522

Ottesen, E.A., Marin III, R., Preston, C.M., Young, C.R., Ryan, J.P., Scholin, C.A., DeLong, E.F. (2011). Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton. The ISME Journal, 5: 1881–1895. http://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.70

Ryan, J., Greenfield, D., Marin III, R., Preston, C., Roman, B., Jensen, S., Pargett, D., Birch, J., Mikulski, C., Doucette, G., Scholin, C.A. (2011). Harmful phytoplankton ecology studies using an autonomous molecular analytical and ocean observing network.  Limnology and Oceanography, 56: 1255-1272.


Doucette, G.J., Mikulski, C.M., Jones K.L., King, K.L., Greenfield D.I., Marin III R., Jensen S., Roman B., Elliott C.T., Scholin, CA. (2009). Remote, subsurface detection of the algal toxin domoic acid onboard the Environmental Sample Processor: assay development and initial field trials. Harmful Algae, 8:880-888.

Scholin, C., Doucette, G., Jensen, S., Roman, B., Pargett, D., Marin III, R., Preston, C., Jones, W., Feldman, J., Everlove, C., Harris, A., Alvarado, N., Massion, E., Birch, J., Greenfield, D., Vrijenhoek, R., Mikulski, C., Jones, K. (2009). Remote detection of marine microbes, small invertebrates, harmful algae and biotoxins using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). Oceanography, 22: 158-167.

Preston, C., Marin III, R., Jensen, S., Feldman, J., Massion, E., DeLong, E., Suzuki, M., Wheeler, K., Cline, D., Alvarado, N., Scholin, C. (2009). Near real-time, autonomous detection of marine bacterioplankton on a coastal mooring in Monterey Bay, California, using rRNA-targeted DNA probes.  Environmental Microbiology, 11: 1168-1180.


Greenfield, D., Marin III, R., Doucette, G.J., Mikulski, C., Jensen, S., Roman, B., Alvarado, N., Scholin, C.A. (2008). Field applications of the second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) for remote detection of harmful algae: 2006-2007. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 6: 667-679.


Jones, W.J., Preston, C., Marin III, R., Scholin, C., Vrijenhoek, R. (2007). A robotic molecular method for in situ detection of marine invertebrate larvae.  Molecular Ecology Resources, 8: 540-550.

Roman, B., Scholin, C., Jensen, S., Massion, E., Marin III, R., Preston, C., Greenfield, D., Jones, W., Wheeler, K. (2007). Controlling a Robotic Marine Water Sampler with the Ruby Scripting Language. Journal of American Laboratory Automation, 12: 56-61.


Greenfield, D.I., Marin III, R., Jensen, S., Massion, E., Roman, B., Feldman, J., Scholin, C. (2006). Application of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) methodology for quantifying Pseudo-nitzschia australis using ribosomal RNA-targeted probes in sandwich and fluorescent in situ hybridization.  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 4: 426-435.

Metfies, K., Töbe, K., Scholin, C., Medlin, L.K. (2006). Laboratory and field applications of ribosomal RNA probes to aid the detection and monitoring of harmful algae. In: Ecology of Harmful Algae (Granéli, E., and Turner, J.T. eds), pp. 311-325. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.


Upper-ocean systems
Acoustical ocean ecology
Acoustic instruments
Acoustic fingerprinting
Acoustic community ecology
Acoustics in the news
Marine biogeochemistry
Ocean carbon export
Technology development
Coastal carbon cycling and ocean acidification
Carbon cycle feedbacks
Western boundary current carbon cycling
Lab news
Biological oceanography
Global modes of sea surface temperature
Nitrate supply estimates in upwelling systems
Chemical sensors
Chemical data
Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory in Elkhorn Slough
Listing of floats
SOCCOM float visualization
Periodic table of elements in the ocean
Biogeochemical-Argo Report
Profiling float
Marine microbes
Population dynamics of phytoplankton
Microbial predators
Microbe-algae interactions
Targeted metagenomics
In the news
Upcoming events and lab news
Past talks and presentations
Join the lab
Interdisciplinary field experiments
Ecogenomic Sensing
Genomic sensors
Field experiments
Harmful algal blooms (HABs)
Water quality
Environmental Sample Processor (ESP)
ESP Web Portal
In the news
Ocean observing system
Midwater research
Midwater ecology
Deep-sea squids and octopuses
Food web dynamics
Midwater time series
Respiration studies
Zooplankton biodiversity
Seafloor processes
Revealing the secrets of Sur Ridge
Mapping Sur Ridge
Biology and ecology
Effects of humans
Ocean acidification, warming, deoxygenation
Lost shipping container study
Effects of upwelling
Faunal patterns
Previous research
Technology development
High-CO2 / low-pH ocean
Benthic respirometer system
Climate change in extreme environments
Station M: A long-term observatory on the abyssal seafloor
Station M long-term time series
Monitoring instrumentation suite
Sargasso Sea research
Antarctic research
Geological changes
Arctic Shelf Edge
Continental Margins and Canyon Dynamics
Coordinated Canyon Experiment
CCE instruments
CCE repeat mapping data
Monterey Canyon: A Grand Canyon beneath the waves
Submarine volcanoes
Mid-ocean ridges
Magmatic processes
Volcanic processes
Explosive eruptions
Hydrothermal systems
Back arc spreading ridges
Near-ridge seamounts
Continental margin seamounts
Non-hot-spot linear chains
Eclectic seamounts topics
Margin processes
Hydrates and seeps
California borderland
Hot spot research
Hot-spot plumes
Magmatic processes
Volcanic processes
Explosive eruptions
Volcanic hazards
Hydrothermal systems
Flexural arch
Coral reefs
ReefGrow software
Eclectic topics
Submarine volcanism cruises
Volcanoes resources
Areas of study
Automated chemical sensors
Methane in the seafloor
Microscopic biology research
Open ocean biology research
Seafloor biology research
Volcanoes and seamounts
Hydrothermal vents
Methane in the seafloor
Submarine canyons
Earthquakes and landslides
Ocean acidification
Physical oceanography and climate change
Ocean circulation and algal blooms
Ocean cycles and climate change
Past research
Molecular ecology
Molecular systematics
SIMZ Project
Bone-eating worms
Gene flow and dispersal
Molecular-ecology expeditions
Ocean chemistry of greenhouse gases
Emerging science of a high CO2/low pH ocean
Research publications