Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Marine Botany
Distichlis spicata

Other sites with information on Distichlis spicata:

  1. US Forest Service Information
    Extensive descriptions and basic information about the species, also with a large, fairly comprehensive list of primary sources for further investigation.
  2. USDA Plant Profile
    Good snapshot of "official" scientific profile of the plant.
  3. USDA Plant Guide
    Page "brochure" that lists, among other information, uses, management and control of Distichlis spicata. Also with a good list of primary literature cited.
  4. Online Botany textbook (UCLA)
    General botanic information, look under "Lifeforms" then "Halophytes" for Distichlis and other similar plants.
  5. Images of Distichlis (Texas A&M)
    A number of the original images from the first detailed investigations of Distichlis at Texas A&M in 1950.


  1. Barbour, Michael G. and Davis, Craig B. "Salt Tolerance of Five California Salt Marsh Plants." American Midland Naturalist: Vol 84, Issue 1 (July 1970), 262-265.
  2. Bradley, T and Patrick, M. "Halophytes of the San Joaquin Freshwater Marsh Reserve." Accessed February 20, 2003..
  3. Hansen, D.J. et al. "Ecological Adaptations of Salt Marsh Grass, Distichlis spicata (Gramineae), and Environmental Factors Affecting Its Growth and Distribution." American Journal of Botany: Vol 63, Issue 5 (May - June 1976), 635-650.
  4. Harrison, T and Arshad, Shazi. "Great Salt Lake Food Web." Accessed March 3, 2003. <http://people.westminstercollege.edu/
  5. Kemp, Paul R. and Cunningham, Gary L. "Light, Temperature and Salinity Effects on Growth, Leaf Anatomy and Photosynthesis of Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene." American Journal of Botany: Vol 68, Issue 4 (April 1981), 507-516.
  6. Las Pilitas Nursery. "Distichlis spicata spicata." Accessed February 13, 2003.
  7. Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. "Botany Textbooks." Accessed February 20, 2003. <http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/bg-btx.html>.
  8. Sargeant, M.R., et al. "Productive Reclamation of Saline Soils with Distichlis spicata var. yensen-4a." Accessed February 13, 2003.
    Uchytil, Ronald J. 1990. Distichlis spicata. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (2003, March). Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [March 7, 2003].
    University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. "Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs: Distichlis spicata." Website accessed February 13, 2003.
    USDA, NRCS. 2002. "Plant Guide - Saltgrass: Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene." The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov/). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  9. USDA, NRCS. 2002. "Plant Profile for Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene." The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov/). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  10. Warren, R. Scott and Brockelman, Peter M. "Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Salt Gland Activity of Distichlis spicata in Relation to Soil Salinity." Botanical Gazette: Vol 150, Issue 4 (December 1989), 346-350.

Copyright:This site was created in February and March of 2003 by Justin Kitzes as a final project for Marine Botany with Judith Connor, an undergraduate biology class offered at the Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA.Unless otherwise noted, all photographs on the site were taken by the author. Much information on these pages was taken from the list of cited papers and websites above - this information remains the property of these respective sources. All other information on this site gathered by the author (including photographs) may be freely used for non-commercial purposes provided an acknowledgement to the author and a link to this site are included. Higher resolution versions of all photographs are available. Please inform the author at justin@kitzes.com if you plan on incorporating images or text from this site into your own work.The author apologizes in advanced for any information that might become outdated after March 2003. If you find any such information, or any other factual errors in these pages please advise the author at the address above.

Last updated March 2003, Justin Kitzes.

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