Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Marine Botany

Acknpericentral cellswledgements

The following sources were consulted in the construction of this website on Polysiphonia:

Abbott, I.A., and G.J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine algae of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.

Bold H.C. and M.J. Wynne. 1978. Introduction to the Algae. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Gabrielson, P.W. et al. 2000. Keys to the Benthic Marine Algae and Seagrasses of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, Washington and Oregon. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Helbling, E.W., C.F. Menchi and V.E. Villafane. 2002. Bioaccumulation and role of UV-absorbing compounds in two marine crustacean species from Patagonia, Argentina. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. v.1 no.10:  820-825.

Heller, C., G. Orians, B. Purves and D. Sadava. 2001. Life: The Science of Biology. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.

Kapraun, D.F. and R.B. Searles. 1990. Planktonic bloom of an introduced species of Polysiphonia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)  along the coast of North Carolina, USA. Hydrobiologia. 204/205: 269-274.

Lake, D. Chondracanthus Morphology. 1999. Marine Botany Website. <>.

Lewis, L. Biology of the Algae. 2002. University of Connecticut. <>.

Maggs, C.A. and H. Stegenga. 1998-1999. Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts. Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen. v.52  no.3-4: 243-258.

Markus, N., M. Ranelletti, and C. Loo. Background and Divisional Characteristics of Red Algae (Rhodophyta). 1999. University of California Santa Cruz. <>.

McIvor, L.M., C.A. Maggs, and M.J. Stanhope. 2000. Systematics and phylogeography of the invasive red algae, Polysiphonia harveyi. Journal of Phycology. v.36 no.3 supplement: p.46.

McIvor, L.M., et al. 2001. rcbL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyiMolecular Ecology. v.10, no.4: 911-919.

Moon, D. Marine Botany. 1996. University of California Santa Cruz.  <>.

Parmentier, J. Polysiphonia: a red algae. March 1999. Micscape Magazine. <>.

Smith, G.M. 1944. Marine Algae of the Monterey Peninsula, California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.

This site would not have been possible without help from
Judith Connor, Patrick Martone,

and the entire 2003 Marine Botany class.

Special thanks to Jim Watanabe and Freya Sommer for procuring some of the live specimens and to Jim Watanabe for helping to identify animals on the ecology page.