Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Marine Botany

Codium setchellii

References and Image Credits

Works Cited

Abbott, I. A. and G. J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. xii + 827 pp.

Bold, H. C. and M. J. Wynne. 1978. Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction. Prentice-Hall Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. xiv + 706 pp.

Doty, M. S. 1947. The marine algae of Oregon. Part I. Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Farlowia. 3: 1-65.

Guiry, M. D. 2004. Codium setchellii. AlgaeBase. Link. Available at:

Hawkes, M. W. et al. 1979. The benthic marine algae of northern British Columbia. Syesis. 11: 81-115.

Markham, J. W. and J. L. Celestino. 1977. Intertidal marine plants of Clatsop County, Oregon. Syesis. 9: 253-266.

Sanborn, E. I. and M. S. Doty. 1947. The marine algae of the Coos Bay-Cape Arago region of Oregon. Oregon State Monographs, Studies in Botany. 8: 66 pp.

Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to the genera). Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada. 150: v+ 289 pp.

Scagel, R. F. 1966. Marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington. Part I. Chlorophyceae (green algae). Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada. 207: 257 pp.

Scagel, R. F. 1967. Guide to Common Seaweeds of British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook. Vol. 27. 330 pp.

Scagel, R. F. 1973. Marine benthic plants in the vicinity of Bamfield, Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Syesis. 6: 127-145.

Silva, P. C. 1951. The genus Codium in California with observations on the structure of the walls of the utricles. University of California Publications in Botany. 25: 79-114.

Silva, P. C. 2004. Guide page for Codium setchellii Gardner. Center for Phycological Documentation: DeCew's Guide. Link. Available at:

Trowbridge, C. D. 1991. Group membership facilitates feeding of the herbivorous sea slug Placida dendritica. Ecology. 72(6): 2193-2203.

Trowbridge, C. D. 1992a. Mesoherbivory: the ascoglossan sea slug Placida dendritica may contribute to the restricted distribution of its algal host. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 83: 207-220.

Trowbridge, C. D. 1992b. Phenology and demography of a marine specialist herbivore: Placida dendritica (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) on the central coast of Oregon. Marine Biology. 114: 443-452.

Trowbridge, C. D. 1996. Demography and phenology of the intertidal green alga Codium setchellii: the enigma of local scarcity on sand-influenced rocky shores. Marine Biology. 127: 341-351.

Trowbridge, C. D. 1997. Dietary induction of opisthobranch morphology: Placida dendritica (Alder & Hancock, 1843) on different green algal hosts. Journal of Mollusc Studies. 63: 29-38.

Trowbridge, C. D. 1998. Stenophagous, herbivorous sea slugs attack desiccation-prone, green algal hosts (Codium spp.): indirect evidence of prey-stress models (PSMs)? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 230: 31-53.


Other Algae Sites

AlgaeBase (prepared by M. D. Guiry) provides some excellent information on the world's seaweeds. Of particular interest is the page on the genus Codium, including valid species (with synonyms). Guiry also includes a page on Codium setchellii, including some good general references.

DeCew prepared a good summary of Codium setchellii, including some good references on distribution, seasonality, and ecological interactions.

Of course Dr. Judith Connor and her class have prepared an excellent set of websites focusing on the local marine algae of the Monterey Bay.


Image Credits

All photos taken by Raúl Nava and are for educational use only. Images may be copied for use in educational materials intended for private use. All diagrams were drawn by Raúl Nava and are subject to the same restrictions as the photographs included on the site. High-resolution copies of the images are also available upon request. Commercial use or use in publications or presentations is subject to author's approval. Please e-mail for inquiry.

Choose one of the following links to learn more about Codium setchellii:

|Taxonomy | Distribution | Habitat | Structure & Morphology | Cellular Structure |

| Reproduction & Life Cycle | Ecology | Epiphytes | References |

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© 2005 Raúl Nava. Text and images freely available for personal, educational use (please credit).
Please e-mail me ( for any other use (including publication or commercial).


Last updated: Feb. 05, 2009