audio and photographic recording of small marine organisms for
non-destructive ecological sampling and documentation.
California State University
California State University, Hayward
3:00 p.m.–Pacific Forum
observations in the laboratory can indicate what might happen in the
field, but direct close-up observations in natural settings often lack
convenience and resolution.
such as disturbance of the animals, inadequate lighting, and poor visual
acuity of a drifting investigator have been minimized with versatile,
little-known, cost-effective photographic equipment, including the finest,
almost practical color imaging via Hasselblad’s 70-mm film format.
Risk of equipment
damage is minimized for depths of less than 7 meters, with an inexpensive,
pliable vinyl housing for virtually any camera. Close-ups are best with a
short extension tube or achromatic (2-element) diopter. An external flash
is convenient in a separate housing, triggered via an auto-exposure slave
accessory. Slave flashes can be shared within a rack of close-up and
wider-field underwater cameras.
color transparencies are studied with transmitted light under a dissecting
microscope. Initial, subjective, time-lapse comparisons are made with an
improvised blink comparator. Such simple procedures yield efficient,
non-destructive data collection with permanent photographic records.
Quantification is optimized after subjective comparisons of photographs
establish the necessary subsampling resolution and replication.
records result in improved documentation and illustration and provide
diverse education worldwide for the broader scientific community and the