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The History of American
Deep Submersible Operations

Will Forman
Author of "The History of American Deep
Submersible Operations"

Wednesday, July 12, 2000
3:00 p.m.—Pacific Forum

This lecture is a joint Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Marine Technology Society seminar.

The History of American Deep Submersible Operations is described from the hand- powered, wooden-hulled, candlelit Revolutionary War submersible "Turtle" to the present day nuclear-powered submersible NR-1.

The struggles of John Holland and Simon Lake in the late 1800s that led to the launching of the first U.S. military subs a hundred years ago are briefly detailed.

The developmental process during the 18th and 19th century that led up to the first submersibles to be used for oceanographic research is briefly outlined.

The initiation of American oceanographic research by deep submersible is related in the stories of Beebe and Barton’s submersibles built in the U.S. and the European-built bathyscaphe Trieste operated by the U.S. Navy.

The design, development, and operations of the first American-built deep submersible launched in January 1964 is described, as are the highlights of other deep submersibles active in the 20th century.

Next: Research and monitoring at Elkhorn Slough: Exotic creatures in the mud