org.mbari.siam.core
Class SiamTimer

java.lang.Object
  extended by org.mbari.siam.core.SiamTimer

public class SiamTimer
extends java.lang.Object

A facility for threads to schedule tasks for future execution in a background thread. Tasks may be scheduled for one-time execution, or for repeated execution at regular intervals.

Corresponding to each Timer object is a single background thread that is used to execute all of the timer's tasks, sequentially. Timer tasks should complete quickly. If a timer task takes excessive time to complete, it "hogs" the timer's task execution thread. This can, in turn, delay the execution of subsequent tasks, which may "bunch up" and execute in rapid succession when (and if) the offending task finally completes.

After the last live reference to a Timer object goes away and all outstanding tasks have completed execution, the timer's task execution thread terminates gracefully (and becomes subject to garbage collection). However, this can take arbitrarily long to occur. By default, the task execution thread does not run as a daemon thread, so it is capable of keeping an application from terminating. If a caller wants to terminate a timer's task execution thread rapidly, the caller should invoke the the timer's cancel method.

If the timer's task execution thread terminates unexpectedly, for example, because its stop method is invoked, any further attempt to schedule a task on the timer will result in an IllegalStateException, as if the timer's cancel method had been invoked.

This class is thread-safe: multiple threads can share a single Timer object without the need for external synchronization.

This class does not offer real-time guarantees: it schedules tasks using the Object.wait(long) method.

Implementation note: This class scales to large numbers of concurrently scheduled tasks (thousands should present no problem). Internally, it uses a binary heap to represent its task queue, so the cost to schedule a task is O(log n), where n is the number of concurrently scheduled tasks.

Since:
1.3

Modified for SIAM by Bob Herlien, 7/1/2003. Renamed to SiamTimer (from java.utils.Timer), include it in package org.mbari.siam.core, and added method forceNotify() to fix the problem with the CPU going to sleep.

Version:
1.7, 02/02/00
Author:
Josh Bloch
See Also:
SiamTimerTask, Object.wait(long)

Constructor Summary
SiamTimer()
          Creates a new timer.
SiamTimer(boolean isDaemon)
          Creates a new timer whose associated thread may be specified to run as a daemon.
 
Method Summary
 void cancel()
          Terminates this timer, discarding any currently scheduled tasks.
 java.lang.String getThreadName()
          Get name of the timer's thread.
static long nextScheduledTask()
          Return number of milliseconds until the next SiamTimer will run a task (globally, any SiamTimer).
static void recalculate()
          Force a notify() for all active SiamTimers (kept in the static Vector _allTimers).
 void schedule(SiamTimerTask task, java.util.Date time)
          Schedules the specified task for execution at the specified time.
 void schedule(SiamTimerTask task, java.util.Date firstTime, long period)
          Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-delay execution, beginning at the specified time.
 void schedule(SiamTimerTask task, long delay)
          Schedules the specified task for execution after the specified delay.
 void schedule(SiamTimerTask task, long delay, long period)
          Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-delay execution, beginning after the specified delay.
 void scheduleAtFixedRate(SiamTimerTask task, java.util.Date firstTime, long period)
          Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-rate execution, beginning at the specified time.
 void scheduleAtFixedRate(SiamTimerTask task, long delay, long period)
          Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-rate execution, beginning after the specified delay.
 void setThreadName(java.lang.String name)
          Set name of the timer's thread.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Constructor Detail

SiamTimer

public SiamTimer()
Creates a new timer. The associated thread does not run as a daemon.

See Also:
Thread, cancel()

SiamTimer

public SiamTimer(boolean isDaemon)
Creates a new timer whose associated thread may be specified to run as a daemon. A deamon thread is called for if the timer will be used to schedule repeating "maintenance activities", which must be performed as long as the application is running, but should not prolong the lifetime of the application.

Parameters:
isDaemon - true if the associated thread should run as a daemon.
See Also:
Thread, cancel()
Method Detail

schedule

public void schedule(SiamTimerTask task,
                     long delay)
Schedules the specified task for execution after the specified delay.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
delay - delay in milliseconds before task is to be executed.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if delay is negative, or delay + System.currentTimeMillis() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, or timer was cancelled.

schedule

public void schedule(SiamTimerTask task,
                     java.util.Date time)
Schedules the specified task for execution at the specified time. If the time is in the past, the task is scheduled for immediate execution.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
time - time at which task is to be executed.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if time.getTime() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, timer was cancelled, or timer thread terminated.

schedule

public void schedule(SiamTimerTask task,
                     long delay,
                     long period)
Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-delay execution, beginning after the specified delay. Subsequent executions take place at approximately regular intervals separated by the specified period.

In fixed-delay execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the actual execution time of the previous execution. If an execution is delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), subsequent executions will be delayed as well. In the long run, the frequency of execution will generally be slightly lower than the reciprocal of the specified period (assuming the system clock underlying Object.wait(long) is accurate).

Fixed-delay execution is appropriate for recurring activities that require "smoothness." In other words, it is appropriate for activities where it is more important to keep the frequency accurate in the short run than in the long run. This includes most animation tasks, such as blinking a cursor at regular intervals. It also includes tasks wherein regular activity is performed in response to human input, such as automatically repeating a character as long as a key is held down.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
delay - delay in milliseconds before task is to be executed.
period - time in milliseconds between successive task executions.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if delay is negative, or delay + System.currentTimeMillis() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, timer was cancelled, or timer thread terminated.

schedule

public void schedule(SiamTimerTask task,
                     java.util.Date firstTime,
                     long period)
Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-delay execution, beginning at the specified time. Subsequent executions take place at approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.

In fixed-delay execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the actual execution time of the previous execution. If an execution is delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), subsequent executions will be delayed as well. In the long run, the frequency of execution will generally be slightly lower than the reciprocal of the specified period (assuming the system clock underlying Object.wait(long) is accurate).

Fixed-delay execution is appropriate for recurring activities that require "smoothness." In other words, it is appropriate for activities where it is more important to keep the frequency accurate in the short run than in the long run. This includes most animation tasks, such as blinking a cursor at regular intervals. It also includes tasks wherein regular activity is performed in response to human input, such as automatically repeating a character as long as a key is held down.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
firstTime - First time at which task is to be executed.
period - time in milliseconds between successive task executions.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if time.getTime() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, timer was cancelled, or timer thread terminated.

scheduleAtFixedRate

public void scheduleAtFixedRate(SiamTimerTask task,
                                long delay,
                                long period)
Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-rate execution, beginning after the specified delay. Subsequent executions take place at approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.

In fixed-rate execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the scheduled execution time of the initial execution. If an execution is delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), two or more executions will occur in rapid succession to "catch up." In the long run, the frequency of execution will be exactly the reciprocal of the specified period (assuming the system clock underlying Object.wait(long) is accurate).

Fixed-rate execution is appropriate for recurring activities that are sensitive to absolute time, such as ringing a chime every hour on the hour, or running scheduled maintenance every day at a particular time. It is also appropriate for for recurring activities where the total time to perform a fixed number of executions is important, such as a countdown timer that ticks once every second for ten seconds. Finally, fixed-rate execution is appropriate for scheduling multiple repeating timer tasks that must remain synchronized with respect to one another.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
delay - delay in milliseconds before task is to be executed.
period - time in milliseconds between successive task executions.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if delay is negative, or delay + System.currentTimeMillis() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, timer was cancelled, or timer thread terminated.

scheduleAtFixedRate

public void scheduleAtFixedRate(SiamTimerTask task,
                                java.util.Date firstTime,
                                long period)
Schedules the specified task for repeated fixed-rate execution, beginning at the specified time. Subsequent executions take place at approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.

In fixed-rate execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the scheduled execution time of the initial execution. If an execution is delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), two or more executions will occur in rapid succession to "catch up." In the long run, the frequency of execution will be exactly the reciprocal of the specified period (assuming the system clock underlying Object.wait(long) is accurate).

Fixed-rate execution is appropriate for recurring activities that are sensitive to absolute time, such as ringing a chime every hour on the hour, or running scheduled maintenance every day at a particular time. It is also appropriate for for recurring activities where the total time to perform a fixed number of executions is important, such as a countdown timer that ticks once every second for ten seconds. Finally, fixed-rate execution is appropriate for scheduling multiple repeating timer tasks that must remain synchronized with respect to one another.

Parameters:
task - task to be scheduled.
firstTime - First time at which task is to be executed.
period - time in milliseconds between successive task executions.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if time.getTime() is negative.
java.lang.IllegalStateException - if task was already scheduled or cancelled, timer was cancelled, or timer thread terminated.

cancel

public void cancel()
Terminates this timer, discarding any currently scheduled tasks. Does not interfere with a currently executing task (if it exists). Once a timer has been terminated, its execution thread terminates gracefully, and no more tasks may be scheduled on it.

Note that calling this method from within the run method of a timer task that was invoked by this timer absolutely guarantees that the ongoing task execution is the last task execution that will ever be performed by this timer.

This method may be called repeatedly; the second and subsequent calls have no effect.


recalculate

public static void recalculate()
Force a notify() for all active SiamTimers (kept in the static Vector _allTimers). This causes the SiamTimer to recalculate the time to sleep. This function has the side-effect of looking for inactive (cancelled, expired) timers and deleting them from _allTimers


nextScheduledTask

public static long nextScheduledTask()
Return number of milliseconds until the next SiamTimer will run a task (globally, any SiamTimer). Return 0 if one is running now.


getThreadName

public java.lang.String getThreadName()
Get name of the timer's thread.


setThreadName

public void setThreadName(java.lang.String name)
                   throws java.lang.SecurityException
Set name of the timer's thread.

Throws:
java.lang.SecurityException


Copyright © 2003 MBARI.

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) provides this documentation and code "as is", with no warranty, express or implied, of its quality or consistency. It is provided without support and without obligation on the part of MBARI to assist in its use, correction, modification, or enhancement.