Gulf of California 2012

Midwater Biology

February 17-27, 2012

The focus of the midwater biology team’s research will be the Gulf of California’s oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and its influence on the physiology, diversity, and ecology of midwater animals. The primary areas of focus will be the gulf’s central and southern basins. The research conducted will be based on dives performed by the ROV Doc Ricketts and supplemented by blue-water scuba diving and midwater trawling.


The OMZ is a dominant feature of the gulf’s water column—it is five times larger and much closer to the surface than the OMZ in the Monterey Bay. This permanent physical feature causes many animals in the Gulf of California to be forced upward toward the surface, making the near-surface layers more crowded than in other parts of the ocean, particularly during the day. Some species shift their vertical distributions below the OMZ, which moves them further from the food-rich surface layers. Still other species have apparently found physiological or behavioral adaptations that allow them to regularly enter the layer.

MBARI scientists hypothesize that the unusual vertical distribution and migration patterns displayed by the gulf’s midwater fauna are driven chiefly by the characteristics of the OMZ. Also, the degree to which these patterns occur is directly related to the strength and breadth of the OMZ, which vary from basin to basin. In order to investigate these issues, scientists will measure the physiological and behavioral capabilities of various midwater species to deal with low levels of oxygen.

This work will be conducted by using ROV-based surveys to determine the precise vertical distribution and abundance patterns of the principal species. Most of the researchers on this cruise specialize in “gelatinous zooplankton”—jellyfish-like siphonophores and ctenophores which can dominate midwater ecosystems. These are usually overlooked on expeditions which either focus on benthic habitats, or which do not have ROVs like Doc Ricketts, which is capable of collecting minuscule, transparent animals.

We will also be deploying some special blue LED lights on the ROV, to image the fluorescence of gulf inhabitants. Fish, in particular, have impressive fluorescent properties. Additionally, blue-water scuba and midwater trawling will provide access to shallower and smaller organisms that the Doc Ricketts cannot observe.

The gulf’s unique environment has favored the development of communities dominated by very few taxa. Unlike the relatively even distribution of species that we find off California, samples in these semi-enclosed basins are frequently dominated by particular species. This distinctive community structure may reflect the future state of the ocean in other regions. Measuring the relative abundance and distribution of gulf species, and observing their adaptations to their extreme environment will provide important data which can be used to anticipate how other seas will be affected by similar oceanographic changes (warming, eutrophication, fishing pressure).

We are also interested in looking at the biodiversity of this region as compared with our own using molecular techniques and morphological studies. The geographic barriers for species are not always well defined in the ocean, and genetic techniques can help us determine where these boundaries occur.

The significance of this research is much broader than the Eastern Tropical Pacific and its OMZ. Increased carbon dioxide input has been predicted to expand oxygen minimum layers in many other parts of the ocean. We need to reach a better understanding of this phenomenon in order to gain a predictive capability with regard to this prospect.


Group photo from Leg 2 (from left to right): Henk-Jan Hoving, Randy Prickett, Bryan Schaefer, Knute Brekke, Karen Osborn, Kyra Schlining, Meghan Powers, Stephanie Bush, Steve Haddock, Lynne Christianson, Rebeca Gasca, Mark Talkovic, Eric Martin, George Matsumoto, Ben Erwin, Erik Thuesen.

GOC 2012: Feb 26

We have a few hours of steaming into port to finish working up or putting away our samples...
Crew members Cole Davis and Jason Jordan hoist up the tether during an ROV recovery as the pilots watch the vehicle come up through the moon pool.

GOC 2012: Feb 25

There are 26 people on board the R/V Western Flyer. Ten of us are part of the science team, but there are many others that help to make things run around here.
The R/V Western Flyer seen from Steve Haddock’s kite camera.

GOC 2012: Feb 24

Although you often hear that the ocean represents two-thirds of the planet, it is actually much, much more.
Primno (amphipod). Photo taken in the lab by Rebeca Gasca.

GOC 2012: Feb 23

Our ROV dive today took us down to 3,200 meters (10,560 feet).
Collecting Japetella diaphana in a detritus sampler with the ROV.

GOC 2012: Feb 22

Even midwater biologists dive all the way down to the bottom sometimes.
The ctenophore, Beroe forskalii.

GOC 2012: Feb 21

Many ctenophores are extremely fragile and need to be collected by hand, either by the human hands of scuba divers or the robotic "hands" of the ROV.
The ctenophore, Bathocyroe, is one of the animals Meghan Powers has been studying.

GOC 2012: Feb 20

The water today at our dive site just off Alarcón Seamount was crystal clear blue...
George Matsumoto waves from 25 meters (82 feet) down. Image captured from video shot by Steve Haddock.

GOC 2012: Feb 19

You know it is going to be a nice blue-water dive when the ROV goes down and not only is the water blue, but I can still see the Western Flyer from 25 meters (82 ft) down!
The swordfish squid, Planctoteuthis danae.

GOC 2012: Feb 17

This morning the R/V Western Flyer set sail from Puerto de Pichilingue at 0700 hrs sharp with a fresh crew of scientific researchers aboard.
The tube worm photographed in the lab out of its tube. Photo by Karen Osborn

GOC 2012: Feb 18

When we reached the bottom on our first dive at 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) we immediately came across something very peculiar.