Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
The Emerging Science of a
High CO2 / Low pH Ocean


Science Background / References

  • Andersen, N.R. and A. Malahoff (1977) The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Oceans. Plenum Press, 749 pp.
  • Brewer, P.G., G. Friederich, E.T. Peltzer, and F.M. Orr, Jr. (1999) Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2. Science, 284, 943-945.
  • Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, I. Aya, K. Yamane, R. Kojima, Y. Nakajima, N. Nakayama, P. Haugan, T. Johannessen. (2005) Deep Ocean Experiments with fossil fuel carbon dioxide: creation and sensing of a controlled plume at 4 km depth. J. Mar. Res., 63, 9-33.
  • Cicerone, R., J. Orr, P.G. Brewer, P. Haugan, L. Merlivat, T. Ohsumi, S. Pantoja, and H.O. Poertner (2004) The ocean in a high CO2 world. Eos, 85, 351-353.
  • Delille, B. and others (2005) Response of primary production and calcification to changes of pCO2 during experimental blooms of the coccolithophorid Emiliana huxleyi. Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB2023 doi: 10.1029/2004GB002318.
  • Dunk, R.M., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, P.G. Brewer (2005) Seeing a Deep Ocean CO2 Enrichment Experiment in a New Light: Laser Raman Detection of Dissolved CO2 in Seawater. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 9630-9636.
  • Gattuso J.-P., Frankignoulle M., Bourge I., Romaine S. & Buddemeier R. W. (1998) Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Global Planet. Change, 18, 37-46.
  • Gattuso J.-P., Allemand D. & Frankignoulle M. (1999) Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: a review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. American Zoologist 39(1):160-183.
  • Kita, J. and T. Ohsumi (2004) Perspectives on biological research for CO2 ocean sequestration. J. Oceanogr., 60, 695-703.
  • Kurihara, H. and Y. Shirayama (2004) Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on sea urchin early development. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 274, 161-169.
  • Langdon, C. and others (2002) Review of experimental evidence for effects of CO2 on calcification of reef builders. Proc. 9th Int. Coral Reef Sym., 2, 1091-1098.
  • Leclercq N., Gattuso J.-P. & Jaubert J. (2000) CO2 partial pressure controls the calcification rate of a coral community. Global Change Biology 6, 329-334.
  • Long, S.P., E.A. Ainsworth, A.B. Leakey, J. Nosberger, and D.R. Ort (2006) Food for thought: Lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations. Science, 312, 1918-1921.
  • NSF-NOAA-USGS (2006) Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other marine calcifiers. Report of a Workshop. J.A. Kleypas, R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins, Eds.
  • Peltzer, E.T., P.G. Brewer, R.M. Dunk, M.P. Fuchs, P.M. Walz (2006), Deep Ocean CO2 Hydration Kinetics, Eos. Trans. AGU 87(36) Ocean Sci. Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS45B-20.
  • Riebesell, U. (2004) Effects of CO2 enrichment on marine phytoplankton. J. Oceanogr., 60, 719-729.
  • Royal Society, Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, pp. 60, 2005.
  • Schimel, D. (2006) Climate change and crop yields: Beyond Cassandra. Science, 312, 1889-1890.
  • Tamburri, M., E.T. Peltzer, G. Friederich, I. Aya, K. Yamane, and P.G. Brewer. (2000) A field study of the effects of CO2 disposal on mobile deep-sea animals. Mar. Chem., 72, 95-101.
  • US Dept. Of Energy (1985) Direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide on vegetation. Report # DOE/ER-0238. B.R. Strain and J.D. Cure, Eds.
  • Zeebe, R.E. and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow (2001) CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser., 65, 345 pp., Elsevier, New York.
  • Zondervan, I., R.E. Zeebe, B. Rost, and U. Riebesell (2001) Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2. Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 507-516.

Questions? Comments? Please contact Edward Peltzer.
Last updated: Feb. 04, 2009