When the ROV came up on Wednesday night, it brought back sea cucumbers found in a large aggregation, sediment cores for molecular barcoding, and a sponge for an on-board study. Jake Ellena and Crissy Huffard prepared water samples for later oxygen measurements while Henry Ruhl sectioned and sieved sediment cores and Amanda Kahn identified and prepared the sponge for experiments. Meanwhile, the rest of the science crew wrapped up preparations for an early morning deployment of the Rover.
Jake Ellena and Crissy Huffard prepare water samples brought up by ROV Doc Ricketts for oxygen analysis. Photo: Carola Buchner
Female (left) and male (right) sea cucumbers, probably of the species Peniagone diaphana, were found to make up the large aggregations spotted while ROV Doc Ricketts surveyed the seafloor at Station M. Photo: Carola Buchner
The deployment went smoothly, with the Rover returning to the water under the rays of the rising sun.
Ken Smith, Paul McGill, John Ferreira, and others not pictured prepare the Rover for its early morning deployment. Photo: Carola Buchner
Following the deployment of the Rover, the sediment event sensor (SES) was recalled to the surface using an acoustic signal and brought onto the ship, where over 3,000 images were downloaded from its 5-month deployment at Station M. The SES looks similar to the other sediment traps deployed at Station M, with a collection funnel covered by a baffle at the top, but it does not trap sediments in bottles like a standard sediment trap would. Instead, material that falls into the trap settles onto a microscope slide, which over time accumulates a fine film of detritus. At set intervals, the slide is photographed using wavelengths of light that activate the fluorescence of chlorophyll and phosphorescence, which provide information about the type and quality of food reaching the deep seafloor. This cruise marked the first long-time series deployment of the SES at Station M, and all indicators so far look like it was successful.
The SES (left) is taller than a standard sediment trap (right) because it uses electronics for photographing slides instead of bottles to capture the sediment deposited into the trap. Photo: Carola Buchner
In the afternoon, the final piece of equipment for the day was recovered: the camera tripod with sequencing sediment traps. This setup has been deployed since the beginning of work at Station M. The sediment traps capture sinking marine snow and other particulates that make up the food supply to the deep sea. Meanwhile, the camera tripod at the seafloor takes photos once an hour, thus logging animal activity sedimentation events on the seafloor. The tripod has witnessed activity such as the erratic paths of the heart urchin Echinocrepis rostrata, movements and appearances of fish and sea cucumbers, excretion by enteropneusts (worm-like animals), and food pulse events such as when large detrital aggregates sink from surface waters.
The camera tripod, recovered this afternoon, photographs the seafloor with its camera (the two cylinders in the center) and flash (the two yellow spheres on either side). Photos will be downloaded, batteries recharged, and then the tripod will be redeployed tomorrow. Photo: Carola Buchner
Each recovery took at least a few hours, between the time the acoustic signal was sent and the equipment was safely secured on the deck. After an instrument receives the acoustic signal a ballast weight is released, it then ascends to the surface, which from this depth can take a few hours. Then a spar buoy with a flag signals that the instrument is at the surface. Beneath the spar buoy are a series of floats that are buoyant in the water, but in air they are quite heavy and require teamwork to get them safely on board. Once each float has been removed one after another, the equipment is recovered and then moved to the back deck where it is serviced for another deployment
Rich Henthorn helps steady the sediment traps as they come onboard the Western Flyer. Pulling equipment from the water requires teamwork to safely move heavy equipment out of the water onto a moving ship. Photo: Paul McGill
A spar buoy floats like a beacon to those searching for it on the Western Flyer, since it indicates that the sediment traps and tripod are on the surface. Another set of eyes, those of a Mola mola, or ocean sunfish, spotted this spar buoy with the floatation and instrumentation below. Photo: Carola Buchner
—Written by Amanda Kahn
November 16, 2012
Experiments in the deep ocean Day 4
November 15, 2012
Recovering long-term sampling equipment Day 3
November 14, 2012
Rover recovery and recharge Day 2
November 13, 2012
Helping hands for free vehicles Day 1
November 12, 2012
No idle hands
R/V Western Flyer
The R/V Western Flyer is a small water-plane area twin hull (SWATH) oceanographic research vessel measuring 35.6 meters long and 16.2 meters wide. It was designed and constructed for MBARI to serve as the support vessel for ROV operations. Her missions include the Monterey Bay as well as extended cruises to Hawaii, the Gulf of California, and the Pacific Northwest.
ROV Doc Ricketts
ROV Doc Ricketts is MBARI's next generation ROV. The system breaks new ground in providing an integrated unmanned submersible research platform with many powerful features providing efficient, reliable, and precise sampling and data collection in a wide range of missions.
Long-term sediment trap
Sequencing conical sediment traps, each with an effective mouth opening of 0.25 m2, are moored at 600 meters and 50 meters above the bottom at 3,500- and 4,050-meter depths, respectively. Trap sequencers are programmed to collect sinking particulate matter in sampling cups every 10 days. In the laboratory, the collected particulate matter is analyzed in duplicate for total and inorganic carbon.
A push-core is a clear plastic tube with a rubber handle on one end. Just as its name implies, the push core is pushed down into loose sediment using the ROV's manipulator arm. As the sediment fills up the core, water exits out the top through one-way valves. When the core is pulled up again, these valves close, which (most of the time) keeps the sediment from sliding out of the core tube. When the cores are brought back to the surface, scientists typically look for living animals and organic material in the sediments.
The Benthic Rover is a mobile physiology lab. In a series of experiments, the rover measures how much oxygen seafloor animals are using. Precise motors lower two 30-centimeter-wide (12-inch) sample chambers into the sediment, where probes record oxygen levels. Two acoustic scanners use ultrasound (in 4-MHz pulses) to look 10 centimeters (four inches) deep into the sediment for large animals, such as worms.
High-frequency suction samplers
This midwater toolsled contains a High-Frequency Suction Sampler (HFSS). You can see one of the 12 collection buckets in this image. This sampler acts like a vacuum cleaner sucking up samples and depositing them into one of the 12 buckets.
The benthic elevator allows us to carry more than the ROV itself can carry. Loaded with sediment enrichers, it is deployed from the ship before the dive and free-falls to the bottom where the ROV pulls the equipment from the elevator for use. After the ROV is recovered, the elevator anchor's acoustic release is triggered from the ship, and the elevator freely ascends to the surface and is recovered.
Free vehicle grab respirometer (FVGR)
Oxygen consumption (a measure of biological activity) of the organisms living in the sediment is measured using a free vehicle grab respirometer (FVGR) which retrieves sediments for faunal examination and chemical analyses.
Lagrangian Sediment Trap (LST)
The Lagrangian Sediment Traps or LSTs are used to collect sinking material at specific depths. Once they are deployed they will sink to a programmed depth and float along with the current. After a few days the sample cups will close and the LST will activate its variable ballast system to rise to the surface to be recovered.
The time-lapse camera consists of a Benthos 377 camera mounted on a titanium frame at an angle of 31 degrees from horizontal with the lens approximately two meters above the seafloor. The camera is equipped with a 28-millimeter Nikonos lens, providing angular coverage of 50 degrees in the horizontal and 35 degrees in the vertical plane, and holds 400 feet of 35-millimeter color-negative film. Up to 3,500 images can be collected in 4.6 months. Two strobe lights, one mounted on either side of the camera housing, illuminate approximately 20 square meters of the seafloor beginning at a distance of 1.8 meters from the camera frame and extending approximately 6.5 meters from the base of the camera frame. In June 2007 a high-resolution digital camera was added to the frame.
Ken is an open-ocean ecologist with 40 of years experience going to sea and studying extreme ecosystems ranging from the deep ocean to Antarctic icebergs. The main thrust of his research is to understand the impact of a changing climate on deep-sea and polar ecosystems. On this cruise, he will coordinate the deployments of autonomous instruments to continue long time-series studies at Station M on the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan at 4,000 meters depth.
Alana specializes in instrumentation. On this cruise she will be deploying three instruments: the Benthic Rover, the time-lapse camera tripod, and Lagrangian sediment traps.
Research Technician, MBARI
As lab technician, Jake's responsibility is to make sure everything runs smoothly so samples can be collected at sea and analyzed in the laboratory. He'll organize much of the equipment being taken to sea, and will ensure everything works during the cruise. Once ashore he'll take all the samples and analyze them in a variety of ways with the goal of achieving a better understanding of how the ocean works.
Mechanical Engineering Technician, MBARI
John will help with all the mechanical maintenance and repair of the Benthic Rover, the sediment traps, and the seafloor camera tripod.
Rich has been at MBARI since 2000 working on many types of projects, but mostly writing software for MBARI's autonomous vehicles. On this cruise Rich is responsible for the control system on the Benthic Rover. The Rover will be retrieved from the seafloor and then redeployed for six more months.
Senior Research Technician, MBARI
Crissy completed a post-doc in MBARI’s Midwater Ecology lab, after which she worked for Conservation International Indonesia supporting marine protected area monitoring efforts. She has just returned to MBARI, as a senior research technician in Ken Smith’s lab, and on this cruise is learning about the lab’s shipboard operations and instruments.
Paul specializes in underwater vehicles and instrumentation. On this cruise he'll help prepare, deploy, and recover the drifters, crawlers, and landers being used to study the deep ocean at Station M.
Head, DEEPSEAS Group
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Researching the links between climate variation and deep-sea ecology has been a primary focus for Henry. In particular he's interested in understanding how changes in climate are related to the role of the deep ocean as a carbon sink. During the cruise he will be researching the abundance and distribution of animals on the seafloor, as well as their respiration rates using specialized chamber systems. Respiration is a good indicator of carbon utilization and provides key input into estimates of carbon flow and the importance of biodiversity at the seafloor.
University of Alberta
Amanda studied plate sponges at Station M as an intern in the Smith lab. She is now pursuing a Ph.D. at the University of Alberta, studying the growth, energetics, and impacts of hexactinellid sponges that form reefs in the straits of western Canada. Her interests outside of research include scuba diving, martial arts, and science blogging.
Engineer of Biotechnology
Carola has worked for many years in the field of microscopy and volunteered on one of Ken Smith´s Sargasso Sea expeditions earlier in 2012. On this trip she will help in the lab. Her interests outside the work are photography and scuba diving.