Day 1 – Climate and Deep-sea Communities Departure
May 20, 2011
Location — Station M
Latitude 35˚ 09'N
Longitude 122˚ 56'W
Just a bit after noon, the Western Flyer steamed out of Moss Landing, heading once again to visit Station M.
Station M, 320 kilometers (200 miles) off the coast of Point Conception, California, is the site of Dr. Ken Smith’s lab’s focus, where they have been studying the ecological dynamics of the deep sea for the last 22 years. On this trip, we plan to deploy and use a variety of different instruments to explore this area further, and to expand our understanding of the alien world of the deep sea.
Moss Landing: The familiar smoke stacks above Moss Landing sunk out of sight, as we headed out to sea.
We plan to deploy and retrieve a free vehicle grab respirometer (FVGR), which will bring back samples of sediment from the ocean floor for examination on the surface. We will also deploy the Benthic Rover. The Benthic Rover is like a mobile physiology station, recording oxygen consumption of animals it holds in its respirometry chambers. The rover will be left to ride around on the ocean floor for six months, at which point we will come and collect it, and its data. We have also brought along our remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and hope to get it in the water so we can have a real-time look around!
Needless to say, this is a full schedule, and everyone on board spent the day hard at work getting everything in place for when we reach station tomorrow.
We did have a nice surprise in the evening. Just before dinner, our ship was joined by some familiar faces; a small pod of Pacific white-sided dolphins appeared off our port side, and rode with us for an hour or so. Pacific white-sided dolphins enjoy riding the bow wake of boats in the Monterey Bay area, and are a common and amusing sight.
Pacific white-sided dolphin: These dolphins live along the western coast of North America, from Alaska to Baja California. They love to play in the wake of boats, and are known for their entertaining aerial acrobatics
Spotted with the Pacific white-sided dolphins were some Northern rightwhale dolphins. These dolphins were named after their cousins, the family of baleen whales known as “right whales,” as both groups conspicuously lack dorsal fins. These zippy little guys are known for being friendly and swimming with dolphins of many other species. And today, they swam with us as well.
Northern rightwhale dolphins are familiar visitors to boats in the Monterey area, and can easily be recognized by their sleek black frames and lack of dorsal fin
A buoy is attached to many of the instruments we deploy, to help us locate it when we bring it back to the surface. The buoys have not only a large brightly colored flag to provide a visible cue above the waves, but they also carry both a light and radio strobe, both important to indicate where our machines surfaced.
The R/V Western Flyer is a small water-plane area twin hull (SWATH) oceanographic research vessel measuring 35.6 meters long and 16.2 meters wide. It was designed and constructed for MBARI to serve as the support vessel for ROV operations. Her missions include the Monterey Bay as well as extended cruises to Hawaii, Gulf of California and the Pacific Northwest.
ROV Doc Ricketts
ROV Doc Ricketts is MBARI's next generation ROV. The system breaks new ground in providing an integrated unmanned submersible research platform, with many powerful features providing efficient, reliable, and precise sampling and data collection in a wide range of missions.
Long Term Sediment Trap
Sequencing conical sediment traps are programmed to collect sinking particulate matter in sampling cups poisoned with 3.0 mmol HgCl2. In the laboratory, the collected particulate matter is analyzed in duplicate for total and inorganic carbon.
A push-core is a clear plastic tube with a rubber handle on one end. Just as its name implies, the push core is pushed down into loose sediment using the ROV's manipulator arm. When the cores are brought back to the surface, scientists typically look for living animals and organic material in the sediments.
The Benthic Rover is a mobile physiology lab. In a series of experiments, the rover measures how much oxygen seafloor animals are using. Precise motors lower two 30-centimeters-wide (12-inch) sample chambers into the sediment, where probes record oxygen levels. Two acoustic scanners use ultrasound to look 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the sediment for large animals, such as worms.
High Frequency Suction Samplers
This midwater toolsled contains a High Frequency Suction Sampler (HFSS). You can see one of the 12 collection buckets in this image. This sampler acts like a vacuum cleaner sucking up samples and depositing them into one of the 12 buckets.
Free Vehicle Grab Respirometer (FVGR)
Oxygen consumption (a measure of biological activity) of the organisms living in the sediment is measured using a Free Vehicle Grab Respirometer (FVGR) with grabs that retrieve the sediments for faunal examination and chemical analyses.
The camera mooring consists of Cannon EOS 5D digital camera mounted on a titanium frame at an angle of 31° from horizontal with the lens approximately two meters above the seafloor. Up to 3500 images can be collected over a period of four months. The camera is housed with a PC104 processor and external memory drive. These components are used to control the camera and store images.
Ken is an open-ocean ecologist with 40 years experience going to sea and studying extreme ecosystems ranging from the deep ocean to Antarctic icebergs. The main thrust of his research is to understand the impact of a changing climate on deep sea and polar ecosystems. On this cruise, he will be coordinating the deployments of autonomous instruments to continue long time-series studies at Station M on the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan at 4,000 meters depth.
Research Technician, MBARI
As lab technician, Jake's responsibility is to make sure everything runs smoothly so samples can be collected at sea and analyzed in the laboratory. He'll handle much of the organizing of the equipment being taken to sea, and will ensure everything works during the cruise. Once ashore he'll take all the samples and analyze them in a variety of ways with the goal of achieving a better understanding of how the ocean works.
Rich has been at MBARI since 2000. Rich has spent time on many types of projects, but mostly writing software for MBARI's autonomous vehicles. On this cruise Rich is responsible for the control system on the Benthic Rover.
Paul specializies in underwater vehicles and instrumentation. On this cruise he'll help prepare, deploy, and recover the drifters, crawlers, and landers being used to study the deep ocean at Station M.
Alana's focus is on developing oceanographic instrumentation. She has worked on several imaging systems, underwater vehicles (both remotely operated and autonomous), and a water sampling system for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). On this cruise she will be deploying three instruments: the Benthic Rover, the time-lapse camera tripod, and Lagrangian sediment traps.
Judit is a graduate student at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station. By day, she studies cephalopod visual systems. By night, she helps Ken Smith's lab lift heavy objects. On this cruise, Judit will be working to document the research projects for the cruise logbook.