Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Northern Expedition
July 27 - September 10, 2013
Research Team

Leg 1: Gas Hydrates
Leg 2: Seafloor lava flows
Leg 3: Seafloor lava flows
Leg 4: Deep-sea chemistry

Leg 1: Gas Hydrates Group
Charlie Paull, Krystle Anderson, Roberto Gwiazda, Esther Sumner, Susan von Thun, Mary McGann, Brian Edwards, Peter Dartnell, Tom Lorenson, Glen Sharman, Lisa Margonelli

Charlie PaullCharlie Paull
Chief Scientist
MBARI

Charlie Paull is a marine geologist studying a diverse set of topics. Over the past decade he has worked at understanding the ongoing processes which move sediments through submarine canyons. To do this he has participated in the development of new tools and techniques to monitor the conditions associated with episodic energetic events within Monterey Canyon. He is involved in the coupled use of ROVs and AUVs to explore along the continental margin of North America, especially at sites where fluids and gases are escaping from the seafloor, where gas hydrates occur near the seafloor, and where active faults cut the seafloor. Charlie is also working with Canadian colleagues to understand the impact of decomposing permafrost and gas hydrate on the shelf and upper slope of the Arctic Ocean.  

Research interests: Assessing the global distribution of gas hydrate and interstitial gas is a continuing interest, as well as the development of new techniques to detect the presence of gas hydrate in marine sediments. Charlie's other ongoing work is focused on the geology associated with seafloor seepage sites, including investigating the deposits associated with chemosynthetic communities, determining the processes that occur at the methane-sulfate boundary, and understanding the origin of pockmarks and other potential seafloor fluid venting sites.

Krystle AndersonKrystle Anderson
Research Technician
MBARI

Krystle is a research technician working for Charlie Paull in the Continental Margins Lab. Her background is primarily in the acquisition and processing of seafloor mapping data. She came from the California State University, Monterey Bay Seafloor Mapping Lab where she obtained her data processing and Geographic Information System (GIS) skills. Krystle spends a majority of her time processing and creating high-resolution maps of multibeam data collected from the mapping AUV. The high-resolution maps she helps create will then be used to aid navigation for the ROV to explore particular areas of interest. On this expedition Krystle will assist with running the GIS system, and processing and cataloging sediment samples and vibracores.

Roberto GwiazdaRoberto Gwiazda
Research Specialist
MBARI

Roberto is a geochemist by training, and his interests lie at the intersection of marine geology and sediment and water chemistry. On this expedition, Roberto will be responsible for collection and analytical measurements of pore-water chemistry on samples taken from sediment cores, and will participate in the collection and analysis of methane from gas vents on the seafloor.

Esther SumnerEsther Sumner
Post-Doctoral Fellow
MBARI

Esther completed her Ph.D. at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom, in 2009. This was followed by two fellowships between 2009 and 2012 at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK, and at the University of Leeds, UK. As of autumn 2012 she holds a joint position as a postdoctoral fellow at MBARI and a lecturer in sedimentology at the University of Southampton, UK.

Research Interests: Esther is a sedimentologist with interests in experimental and numerical modeling of sediment dynamics, measuring the dynamics of active field-scale flows, and conducting field studies of the products emplaced by submarine sediment-laden flows in both modern and ancient clastic environments. She is also interested in the use of flow deposits as paleoearthquake proxies. At MBARI Esther is investigating the dynamics of gravity currents in submarine canyons through analysis of their deposits and measurements of active flows.

Susan von ThunSusan von Thun
Senior Research Technician
MBARI

Susan works in the MBARI video lab, where her primary responsibility is to watch video taken with MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and make observations about the organisms, behaviors, equipment, and geological features. While annotating video, she's become adept at identifying numerous deep-sea organisms, specializing in midwater organisms. She also works on MBARI's social media outlets. On this expedition, she will be in charge of the daily reports and will assist with other science crew tasks.

Mary McGannMary McGann
Geologist
U.S. Geological Survey

Mary is a micropaleontologist/biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center. Her interests focus on using microbiota (primarily foraminifera but also pollen) in climate, geohazards, sediment transport, and paleotsunami investigations, as well as in biomonitoring marine pollution sites and for AMS C-14 chronostratigraphy.

Brian EdwardsBrian Edwards
Geologist
U.S. Geological Survey

Brian is a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center. He has more than 30 years of sea-going experience on 60-plus coring and geophysical cruises along the west coast of the United States, the Gulf of California, and in high-latitude environments (the Ross Sea [Antarctica], the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Arctic Ocean). Brian specializes in sedimentary processes, stratigraphy, and neotectonics, integrating insights gleaned from seafloor rock and sediment samples with information from remote-mapping products, such as close-up photographs of the seafloor, high-resolution bathymetric maps, and seismic-reflection profiles.

Research interests: Brian's studies have focused on understanding tectonic processes along transform faults, how sediment moves from the land to the deep sea, saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifer systems, marine pollution, marine benthic habitats, processes controlling submarine landslides, and the Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean.

Peter DartnellPeter Dartnell
Physical Scientist
U.S. Geological Survey

Peter has been with the U.S. Geological Survey for over 20 years working on seafloor geology, benthic habitat, and paleo-oceanography studies. He earned a bachelors degree in oceanography from Humboldt State University in 1990, and a masters degree in resource management environmental studies from San Francisco State University in 2001.

Research interests: Peter’s interests include seafloor mapping and characterization by collecting and integrating high-resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data along with seafloor video, photographs, and sediment texture. He is also interested in developing computer techniques to better visualize the seafloor.

Tom LorensonTom Lorenson
Geologist
U.S. Geological Survey

Tom is a geologist and organic geochemist working for the U.S. Geological Survey. He is interested in aspects of environmental, petroleum, and global change geochemistry. In September of 2002, he was involved in a research cruise to better understand natural-gas-hydrate distribution across the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Tom’s other projects include: worldwide occurrence of gas hydrate; ocean drilling program leg 164; gas hydrates of the Blake Ridge; gas hydrates on the Cascadia Margin; hydrocarbon background of Monterey Bay and geochemistry of cold seeps on Smooth Ridge; surveys of hydrocarbon seeps and hydrocarbon gases in hot springs in northern California and the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California; surveys of California coastal petroleum pollution; sources and fate of pollutants on the Santa Monica shelf, southern California; and geochemistry of San Francisco Bay and restored wetlands.

Glenn Sharman
Ph.D. Candidate
Stanford

Glenn will be beginning his fifth year as a Ph.D. student this fall. He completed his bachelors degree at Wheaton College in Chicago, Illinois, and has also worked as a field geologist in the environmental consulting industry.

Research interests: Glenn's research focuses broadly on sedimentary geology with a focus on deepwater depositional systems. He is currently studying the structure and sedimentology of an ancient submarine landslide exposed in coastal cliffs in New Zealand. He also studies the sedimentary provenance of Cretaceous-Paleogene forearc basin strata in California.

Lisa Margonelli
Senior Research Fellow
New America Foundation

Lisa Margonelli is a reporter who has been published in the Atlantic, the New York Times, the Washington Post, Wired, Pacific Standard, and elsewhere. Her book about the oil supply chain, Oil On the Brain: Petroleum's Long, Strange Trip to Your Tank, won a Northern California Book Award for nonfiction and was recognized as one of the 25 notable books of 2007 by the American Library Association. She is a senior research fellow at the New America Foundation and is a contributing editor at Pacific Standard.

Leg 2: Seafloor Lava Flow Group
David Clague, Jenny Paduan, Brian Dreyer, Linda Kuhnz, Francois Cazenave, Ryan Portner, Christoph Helo, Sarah Glancy, Adam Soule, Tom Kwasnitschka, Ken Rubin
David Clague

David Clague
Chief Scientist
MBARI

Dave's research interests are nearly all related to the formation and degradation of oceanic volcanoes, particularly Hawaiian volcanoes, mid-ocean ridges, and isolated seamounts. Topics of interest include: compositions of mantle sources for basaltic magmas and conditions of melting; volatile and rare-gas components in basaltic magmas and their degassing history; chronostratigraphic studies of eruption sequence and evolution of lava chemistry during volcano growth; subsidence of ocean volcanoes and its related crustal flexure, plate deformation, and magmatic activity; geologic setting of hydrothermal activity; origin of isolated seamounts; and monitoring of magmatic, tectonic, and hydrothermal activity at submarine and subaerial volcanoes.

Jenny Paduan

Jenny Paduan
Research Specialist
MBARI

Jenny works with Dave Clague in the submarine volcanism project, processing the high-resolution MBARI mapping AUV data and interpreting the maps using ROV observations and samples from our research sites. On this cruise, she will stand watches in the ROV control room, help with rock and sediment sample workup and curation once the vehicle is on deck, and coordinate cruise logs. She is now quite solidly a marine geologist, but her degrees are in biochemistry (Smith College) and biological oceanography (Oregon State University). She is thankful for the opportunities that have led her to study volcanoes, and loves being involved with the research and going to sea. She looks forward to discovering more about how Earth works.

Brian DreyerBrian Dreyer
Isotope Geologist
MBARI/University of California, Santa Cruz

Brian studies the formation and differentiation of igneous rocks. His interest in mid-ocean ridge petrology began during his MBARI postdoctoral fellowship, during which he studied the underpinnings of compositional, spatial, and temporal variability in young lavas from the summit of Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. His interests also include mantle geochemistry, magma reservoir dynamics, and controls on melt differentiation and lava flow morphology and eruption recurrence. This is his third expedition to the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Brian received his Ph.D. in Earth and planetary science from Washington University in Saint Louis in 2007.

Linda KuhnzLinda Kuhnz
Senior Research Technician
MBARI

Linda specializes in the ecology of small animals that live in marine sediments (macrofauna), and larger invertebrates and fishes that live on the seafloor or just above it (megafauna). She conducts habitat characterization studies in benthic (seafloor) ecosystems using underwater video and by collecting deep-sea animals. She hopes to find some new and interesting animals in the unique habitats we are visiting on this cruise.

Francois CazenaveFrançois Cazenave
Mechanical Engineer
MBARI

François is a mechanical engineer specializing in underwater vehicles, oceanographic instrumentation, and wave energy devices. His work consists of designing systems, building them, and deploying them in the ocean. Since joining MBARI three years ago, François has been designing a buoy that converts ocean waves into electricity. Prior to that, he studied internal waves in Monterey Bay and built an ROV and deployed it under the ice in Antarctica. During this cruise, François' main task will be to help improve the methods and tools used to collect sediment cores on the seafloor.

Ryan PortnerRyan Portner
Visiting Scientist
Brown University

Ryan's work focuses on the formation and distribution of volcaniclastic deposits on active and extinct seamounts and mid-ocean ridges. By categorizing the diversity in these deposits with respect to volcanic landforms he hopes to better understand the underlying controls on explosive versus non-explosive deep-marine eruptions. His background research on deep-marine gravity flow deposits preserved in sedimentary-volcanic successions exposed on land lends a comparable platform to study similar deposits of the modern oceans. Currently Ryan is working with colleagues in Brown University's planetary geology group, and hopes to use his research on the seafloor as an Earth analogue for volcanism on other planets.

Christoph HeloChristoph Helo
Postdoctoral Researcher
University of Mainz

Christoph completed his Ph.D. at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, working on pyroclastic deposits from Axial Seamount. After a brief intermezzo at the University of Munich, he is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Volcanology Group at the University of Mainz.

Research interests: Christoph’s interests include basaltic (submarine) eruption activity, formation and properties of volcanic glasses, volatiles in melts and glasses, and low-temperature hydration of silicate glasses. He has been on two cruises with the MBARI team.

Sarah GlancySarah Glancy
Graduate Student
University of Hawai'i at Manoa

Sarah is pursuing a masters degree in geology at UH Manoa. She received her bachelors degree from the University of Puget Sound in 2009, and has been studying at UH Manoa for two years. Sarah is studying a group of young boninite seamounts in the northeastern part of the Lau Basin. The seamounts are located between the arc and the back-arc spreading center. Sarah is using major and trace element data and modeling of melting and crystallization to understand the formation of these unique seamounts. This is Sarah’s first scientific cruise.

Adam SouleAdam Soule
Associate Scientist
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Adam Soule is a physical volcanologist with research interests in the dynamics of eruptions in both submarine and subaerial environments. Adam has worked extensively on mid-ocean ridges conducting high-resolution seafloor mapping and imaging along with geochemical analyses to evaluate volcanic and tectonic processes and their relation to accretion of the ocean crust and hydrothermal fluid circulation. He is currently researching syn-eruptive degassing to quantify ascent rates and flow rates in mid-ocean ridge eruptions, for which direct observations are extremely limited. The samples collected on this cruise will be analyzed for dissolved volatile concentrations and imaged to determine the properties of the vesicle populations.

Tom KwasnitschkaTom Kwasnitschka
Postdoctoral Fellow
GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany

Tom is a postdoctoral fellow with Colin Devey at GEOMAR in Kiel, working on questions of deep-sea volcanology and the application of new survey technology. Originally from Bavaria, he studied geology and paleontology at Kiel University, finishing with a master thesis on the Oder eruptive sequence of Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador. Afterwards, he pursued a Ph.D. with Colin Devey at GEOMAR in Kiel working on eruption and transport mechanisms of deep-sea volcanoes during their incipient stages. This work included mapping of the peripheral seamounts of the Cape Verdean Archipelago. Besides physical volcanology he is interested in innovative exploration methods such as visual mapping and photogrammetry in the deep sea, the development of the necessary technology, and how advanced visualization techniques can help improve field work on the seafloor.

Ken RubinKen Rubin
Professor
University of Hawaii, Manoa

Ken Rubin is a professor of geochemistry and volcanology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, with research interests in active volcanism, coastal processes, and environmental chemistry. His volcanology projects include studies of the timing and style of eruptive and pre-eruptive magmatic processes at submarine and subaerial volcanoes, in such places as Iceland, Hawaii, Tonga, and Mexico. During 16 expeditions at sea and another 10 on land, he and his research group have developed detailed spatio-temporal eruption histories at different volcanoes using high-resolution volcano mapping and sampling techniques, coupled with laboratory-based work to analyze melts, crystals and geothermal waters for natural radiometric and other geochemical tracers. His interests on this expedition include studying the magmatic and volcanic history of recent eruptions at Axial Seamount, particularly the 2011 and 1998 eruptions.

Leg 3: Seafloor Lava Flow Group
David Clague, Jenny Paduan, Brian Dreyer, Linda Kuhnz, Ryan Portner, Christoph Helo, Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Anita Engelstad, Iliya Smithka, William Vaughan

David Clague

See Leg 2 above.





Jenny Paduan

See Leg 2 above.




Brian Dreyer

See Leg 2 above.





Linda Kuhnz

See Leg 2 above.





Ryan Portner

See Leg 2 above.





Christoph Helo

See Leg 2 above.





Dorsey WanlessDorsey Wanless
Postdoctoral Fellow
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Dorsey Wanless is currently an National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. She graduated from the University of Hawai'i with a masters degree in 2005, and received her Ph.D. from the University of Florida in 2010. She will be starting a position as an assistant professor at Boise State University in the Fall of 2014.

Research interests: Dorsey's current research focuses on using basaltic glasses and olivine-hosted melt inclusions to better understand the magmatic plumbing system beneath mid-ocean ridges, hotspot volcanoes, and off-axis seamounts. She uses volatile concentrations in melt inclusions to determine the pressures of melt entrapment. These pressures are then converted to depths of crystallization within the crust and mantle and combined with major and trace element concentrations to provide a detailed map of magma evolution as melts ascend through the magmatic system. Dorsey is also interested in understanding how high-silica magmas form in traditionally basaltic systems. During her Ph.D. work, her research focused on the role of crustal assimilation in the petrogenesis of dacitic lavas on the East Pacific Rise.

Michael PerfitMichael Perfit
Professor and Chair of Geological Sciences
University of Florida

Mike has worked at the University of Florida since 1982. He has written more than 100 technical papers in professional scientific publications, has been a principal investigator on numerous research grants from the National Science Foundation and NOAA, and has just been elected an American Geophysical Union Fellow. His research has focused on the petrogenesis of mid-ocean ridge basalts, island arc lavas, magma genesis, and oceanic spreading centers. He has taken more than 35 dives to depths up to 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) in the deep-sea submersible Alvin during his research. He has served as co-chief scientist on several oceanographic cruises and has lately been using a variety of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to study and sample the seafloor.

Anita EngelstadAnita Engelstad
Graduate Student
City College of San Francisco

Anita got her masters degree in geosciences from San Francisco State University. Her work was focused on the dampening of ocean waves as they propagate over a cohesive ocean bottom. Currently, she is enrolled at City College of San Francisco to increase her knowledge in the field of geosciences. She is looking forward to gaining experience working on a research vessel, and to learn more about the undersea volcanoes on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

Iliya SmithkaIliya Smithka
Ph.D. Student
University of Florida

Iliya is a Ph.D. student in geology at University of Florida. She graduated from Virginia Tech with a bachelors degree in geosciences in 2012. She is excited to be on this expedition as it is her first cruise.

Research interests: Iliya is interested in using mid-ocean-ridge basalt geochemistry to explain petrogenesis and crustal and upper mantle processes.

William VaughanWilliam Vaughan
Graduate Student
Brown University

Will is a graduate student in planetary geology at Brown University. He received his bachelors degree in geology from the University of Chicago in 2011.

Research interests: Will is especially interested in the igneous petrology of the moon and Mercury, but nevertheless looks forward to learning more about his own planet.

Leg 4: Deep-Sea Chemistry Group
Peter Brewer, Ed Peltzer, Peter Walz, Wilson Sauthoff, Nancy Barr, Kelly Lance, Lindsey Fields, Ryan Sibert

Peter BrewerPeter Brewer
Chief Scientist
MBARI

Peter has taken part in more than 40 deep-sea cruises, and has served as chief scientist on major expeditions and on well over 100 ROV dives with MBARI ships and vehicles. His research interests include the ocean geochemistry of the greenhouse gases. He has devised novel techniques both for measurement and for extracting the oceanic signatures of global change.

Research interests: At MBARI, Peter's current interests include the geochemistry of gas hydrates, and the evolution of the oceanic fossil fuel CO2 signal. He has developed novel techniques for deep-ocean laser Raman spectroscopy, and for testing the principles and impacts of deep ocean CO2 injection.

Ed PeltzerEd Peltzer
Senior Research Specialist
MBARI

Ed is an ocean chemist who has been with MBARI since 1997. He earned a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from Bucknell University in 1972 and a Ph.D. in oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego in 1979. Prior to coming to MBARI, he worked at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for nearly 20 years. As the Brewer group's project manager, Ed is also responsible for expedition planning and logistics.

Research interests: Ed has been involved in developing the instrumentation and analytical techniques to study the composition of gases in gas hydrates and deep-sea vents. He has also collaborated on the development of new instrumentation for the measurement of temperature and pH from ROVs and cabled observatories.

Peter WalzPeter Walz
Senior Research Technician
MBARI

Peter has worked as a research technician for a variety of scientists at MBARI. Most recently he has supported the research efforts of Peter Brewer and his interests in the ocean chemistry of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Peter assists with the design, testing, and deployment of the ocean-going science hardware and works closely with the marine operations group to integrate new equipment to work with MBARI's ROV's.

Wilson SauthoffWilson Sauthoff
Summer Intern
MBARI

Wilson is a recent graduate of University of California,. Davis and alumnus of the 2013 MBARI Summer Internship Program. During his internship, Wilson utilized Raman spectrometry to analyze the fraction and rate of methane dissolution from pressurized hydrocarbons. His samples were laboratory-prepared to simulate natural methane seeps similar to those that will be encountered on the Eel River Canyon Slump. Post-cruise, Wilson will be continuing his studies at University of California, Santa Cruz pursuing a Ph.D. in ocean sciences.

Nancy BarrNancy Barr
Web/Print Project Manager
MBARI

Nancy manages the editing, design, and production of the MBARI annual report and participates in a variety of editorial and communication projects. She also oversees the institute website. For this expedition she will be in charge of the daily reports that will be posted to this website and will assist with other science crew tasks.

Kelly LanceKelly Lance
Summer Intern
MBARI

Kelly Lance is an MBARI science and technology illustration intern. She completed the Science Illustration Graduate Certificate Program at California State University, Monterey Bay, in 2013 and has a background in both biology and fine art. Her focus is in marine science and natural history illustration. On this expedition, she will be illustrating the seafloor chemistry research and artistically recording any anecdotal events, which are bound to occur during a weeklong expedition at sea.

Lindsey FieldsLindsey Fields
Postdoctoral Research Associate
University of Georgia

Lindsey Fields is a coastal ecologist, interested in biogeochemistry, coastal and shelf ecology, and the assessment of climate-induced effects and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem dynamics. In 2013 she received her Ph.D. from the University of Rhode Island. Her research focused on benthic-pelagic coupling as a function of changing organic inputs in coastal ecosystems. Lindsey joined the Joye Research Group at the University of Georgia in June 2013.

Ryan SibertRyan Sibert
Ph.D. Student
University of Georgia

Ryan started his Ph.D. work with the Joye Research Group at the University of Georgia in May, 2012 after obtaining his master's degree in Geochemistry from Western Michigan University. His current research focuses on microbial rates of carbon and sulfur transformations, microbial ecology of extreme environments (particularly brine pools and seeps), and microbial alkane production in marine sediments.

Research interests: The influence of road deicing salts on the geochemical cycling of freshwater urban lakes, methane respiration rates in deep marine sediments and brine pools, sulfur reduction/oxidation rates in deep marine sediments and brine pools, and alkane production in deep marine sediments.



Leg 1:
Gas hydrates

July 27 - August 6



Legs 2-3:
Seafloor lava flows

August 10 - September 1




Leg 4:
Deep-sea chemistry

September 5 - 10




research teamResearchers


equipmentEquipment