March 13, 2001 to June 2, 2001
Monterey to Hawaii and back
Cruise History & Purpose
Leg 1: Monterey to Hawaii midwater (March 13-28)
Leg 1: Monterey to Hawaii midwater (March 13-28)
Scheduled Start Date: 2001-03-13 0100 Local Moss Landing time
Scheduled End Date : 2001-03-28 1830 Local Moss Landing time
Expedition Principal Investigator: Bruce Robison
Expedition Chief Scientist: Bruce Robison
The goal of this first leg of the Hawaii Expedition is to occupy a series of stations encompassing the three water masses (coastal zone, California Current, and central gyre) that occur along the transit line from Monterey to Honolulu. Data collected at each station will be used to investigate the relationships between iron, primary production, and gelatinous zooplankton. At 9 stations there will be a 6-hour ROV dive (to 1,000 m), a bongo net tow, a CTD cast (to 1,000 m), and a blue-water scuba dive. At 7 additional stations there will be a bongo net tow and CTD casts. Between stations, underway sampling will include a towed-fish pumping system, and continuous recording with the EK-500 echosounder. All ROV dives will be made during daylight hours, preferably between 0800 and 1400 hours, local time.
Equipment Description (include weight if available):
SHIP/ROV GEAR –
- Chilled Seawater System and Cold Room – Robison
- ROV CTD w/O2 and transmissometer – Robison
- Midwater Suction Sampler w/ 12 buckets – Robison
- 6 Detritus samplers (2 as spares) – Robison
- EK-500 water column profiling system – Robison (continuous use during transit)
- CTD and Rosette w/H2O sample bottles - Chavez
- Winch with conducting wire for CTD net casts & tow fish -Chavez & Johnson
- Hyab crane for tow fish prior to station D3. - Johnson
- Midwater Acoustic Current Meter (ACM) - Robison
- 2 kreisel aquaria and shipping crates - Robison ~150 lbs total*
- 4 sets of scuba gear (including weights, no tanks) - Robison ~200 lbs total
- 3 white collapsible pallet boxes and misc. gear - Robison ~600 lbs total
- 3 big white boxes/pallets of lab gear - Chavez. ~600 lbs total
- 1 incubator - Chavez. ~200 lbs
- 1 bongo frame and net and lead - Chavez ~200 lbs
- Plastic storage shed, 6x6x3 ft, w/ table - Chavez ~200 lbs
- 2 steel tow fish (1 as back up) + pump+block - Johnson. ~350 lbs
- 2 FIA systems+ reagents - Johnson ~250 lbs
- 1 Air compressor - Johnson ~200 lbs
MIDWATER: Bruce Robison, Kim Reisenbichler, Rob Sherlock, Steve Haddock, George Matsumoto, and Kevin Raskoff
BOG: Francisco Chavez, Tim Pennington, Paul Chua, and 1 un-identified female.
TRACE METAL: Ginger Elrod (female), and Steve Fitzwater
Planned Track Description:
Sta. Name Latitude (deg N) Longitude (deg W) Hrs on Station Purpose
C1 36.7960 121.8500 0.25 Surface sample only
M1 36.7550 122.0250 2 nets, CTD
67-55 36.6200 122.4150 0 no stop D1,
Dp Cst 36.5833 122.5167 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
67-60 36.4530 122.7730 2 nets, CTD
67-65 36.2870 123.1300 2 nets, CTD
67-70 36.1200 123.4850 2 nets, CTD
D2, 67-75 35.9530 123.8420 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
67-80 35.7860 124.1950 2 CTD, nets
67-85 35.6200 124.5500 2 CTD, nets D3,
67-90 35.4530 124.9030 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
D4 33.1300 130.59 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
D5 30.9300 136.1600 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
D6 28.8200 141.6200 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
D7 26.7300 147.0400 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
D8 24.7800 152.3800 9 DIVE, nets, CTD
ALOHA 22.4500 158.0000 2 CTD, nets
D9 21.4900 158.4100 7 DIVE - no net, CTD
Leg 2: Karst and Volcanos (April 1-16)
Scheduled Start Date: 2001-04-01 0800 Local Moss Landing time
Scheduled End Date : 2001-04-16 1700 Local Moss Landing time
Expedition Principal Investigator:David Clague
Expedition Chief Scientist: David Clague
This cruise will address topics as diverse as formation of karst topography in drowned reefs to dynamics of submarine basaltic eruptions and formation of volcanic landforms to hydrothermal circulation and geochemistry. Dives are planned to address the interplay of volcanism and reef formation on Mahukona and Kohala (Hilo Ridge) Volcanoes, formation of pointed volcanic cones, flat-topped volcanic cones, and lava ponds on Haleakala, Kilauea, and Koolau Volcanoes, the structure of folded volcanicalstic rocks along the margin of the Hilina slump at Papa'u Seamount, eruption dynamics of fire fountains and explosive eruptions at Loihi Seamount, long-term changes in the hydrothermal system at Loihi Seamount, and formation of karst topography i drowned coral reefs on Mahukona Volcano.
Equipment Description (include weight if available):
Benthic sled with drawer and rock partitions, manipulator, rack of push cores (with catchers) on drawer front, temperature probe (for 1 Loihi dive), glass suction sampler, vibra-peeper coring device, major water samplers (for 1 Loihi dive), biobox, fry-basket, extra pushcores on swingarm for a few dives. Night operations are rock crusher and gravity coring.
David Clague, Charlie Paull, Bill Ussler, Jerry Winterer (SIO), Jennifer Reynolds (U. Alaska), Juli Morgan (Rice U.), Alice Davis, Jenny Paduan, Josh Plant, Randy Keaton, Kyra Schlining
Planned Track Description:
Depart Honolulu and transit 7 nm to dive 4/1A site just offshore Diamond Head, dive in 400 m water on two adjacent volcanic cones (track about 1.3 km long). Transit 3.6 nm south-southeast to dive 4/1B just off Koko Head, dive in 500 m water along chain of 3 volcanic cones (track about 1.6 nm). Transit overnight 115 nm to dive 4/2 site on Mahukona Volcano, dive in 1180-1240-960 m of water. Night operations wil consist of gravity coring within 15 nm of dive site. Dives 4/3A and 4/3B will be two half day dives within 5 nm of each other on the -400 m reef to explore karst topography. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 45 nm transit to dive site 4/4 on Haleakala Volcano to the north-northeast. Dive 4/4 wil be a long shallow dive designed to sample and observe volcanic structures on 5-6 pointed cones at 990 to 325 m depth. Night operations will consist of using the rock crusher within about 12 nm of the end of the dive to sample additional shallow cones and a 50 nm east-southeast transit to dive 4/5 site on Haleakala. Dive 4/5 at 2975 to 2650 m depth will sample and observe the structure of a lava pond and several vents along the rift zone of Haleakala Volcano. Night operations will consist of gravity coring following a 44 nm transit to Hilo Ridge. Dive 4/6 will start at 1460 m depth and rise up the face of the -1150 m reef, collect some volcanic cones on top of the reef and then proceed up the face and across the reef flat of the -400 m reef, ending at about 365 m depth. Night operations will consist of a 28 nm transit to Puna Ridge followed by using the rock crusher. Dive 4/7 will map and collect lava and volcaniclastic sediments in the area where some extremely high-temperature lavas erupted at about 2100 m depth, searching for the source vent. Night operations will consist of using the rock crusher in an area about 10 nm to the east and then returning to the same area where dive 4/7 was done for dive 4/8. Night operations following dive 4/8 to consist of using the rock crusher and then a 54 nm transit to Papa'u Seamount for dive 4/9. Dive 4/9 on the southwest flank of Papa'u will start at xx m depth and sample the volcaniclastic rocks exposed in the marginal fault bounding the Hilina Slump. Night operations will consist of a 13 nm transit to Loihi Seamount's summit and gravity coring prior to dive 4/10, which will be used to sample an 11-m thick section of volcanic ash on the eastern margin of the summit platform at about 1100 m depth. Night operations will consist of gravity coring within about 15 nm of dive 4/10 site. Dive 4/11 will be Geoff Wheat's and Hans Jannasch's dive to collect osmosamplers from the southern pit crater on Loihi Seamount's summit. The dive will also measure temperatures of vents, collect discrete water samples, push cores or vibra-peeper cores, and samples of barite/sulfide hydrothermal chimneys. Night operations will again consist of gravity coring followed by an 8-10 nm transit back to Papa'u Seamount where dive 4/12 will take place on the southern margin of the seamount. Night operations will consist of a 42 nm transit followed by rock crusher on Puna Ridge. Dive 4/13 will be along the shallow submarine Puna rift zone of Kilauea Volcano starting at about 710 m depth and ending at about 410 m depth. This dive will explore and sample a variety of volcanic landforms including a large flat-topped cone, a cone with summit crater, a spatter rampart, and several low-relief, smooth cones. Night operations will consist of rock crusher on Puna Ridge followed by a roughly 16 nm transit back to Hilo Ridge for dive 4/14. Dive 4/14 will start on a pointed volcanic cone on Hilo Ridge at a depth of 1670 m and traverse up the reef face of first the -400-m reef and then the -150-m reef, ending in about 120 m of water. Night operations will consist of an 89 nm transit back to Mahukona Volcano for dive 4/15. Dive 4/15 will start at about 1335 m depth and end at about 1310 m depth, exploring several varieties of volcanic cones and spatter ramparts as well as the deepest and oldest drowned coral reef on Mahukona Volcano. Night operations will consist of a 114 nm transit to the northeast side of Oahu. Dive 4/16 is a short dive on a volcanic cone between about 950 and 650 m depth. The dive will end in time to transit 31 nm to Honolulu for arrival by 5 pm.
Leg 3: Submarine Canyons (April 21-30)
Scheduled Start Date: 2001-04-21 0800 Local Moss Landing time
Scheduled End Date : 2001-04-30 TBD Local Moss Landing time
Expedition Principal Investigator: Gary Greene
Expedition Chief Scientist: Gary Greene
To investigate submarine canyons and associated features located along the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands. We will examine mid-canyon plunge pools, walls and canyon heads to ascertain processes that are actively shaping these canyons. In addition, we will investigate submerged coral reefs and carbonate platforms to determine age and origin. Rocks samples, rock cores, sediment push cores and scoop samples will be collected. We are also interested in establishing whether waters are actively flowing through the submerged flanks of the islands. Fresh waters associated with the islands may be discharging do to the hydraulic head on the adjacent island. In addition, geothermal heating may stimulate seawater flow cells within the flanks of the island. We will obtain in situ data consisting of radium and conductivity measurements, pore waters from cores, and samples to establish diagenetic signatures associated with paleo-flow. We anticipate a 14-hour dive days. Some dives will be in shallow waters (100-300 m deep) where a dive day may have two or more dives. Nighttime operations will consist of taking CTD casts not to extend past 0100 the following dive day. Transit to the next days dive site will be done during the nighttime, non-scientific operational hours.
Equipment Description (include weight if available):
- ROV Tiburon
- Push cores, 12-24 per dive
- Rock drawer
- compartmentalized Niskin bottles, rosette?
- Heat flow probe
- Radium sampler (new)
- CT-probe (new)
- Vibra peeper corer (if functional)/li>
- Scoop bags, 12
- French-fry basket scoop
- Box corer
- Homers –2
- Rock drill, with core liners
- Submarine jack hammer (if available)
- Submarine skill saw (if available)
H. Gary Greene (Chief Scientist), Charlie Paull (Co-Chief Scientist), Dave Claque (Expedition Coordinator), Dave Caress, Bill Ussler, Norm Maher, Billy Moore (U. South Carolina), Jim Moore (USGS), D.J. Osborn, Jenny Paduan, Judith Connor
Planned Track Description:
Our tentative dive sites and transects are as follows: Day 1 (4/21) Transit from Honolulu to first dive site, a distance of 27 nautical miles. Two short shallow dives along the northeaster side of Ohau, offshore of Kahalu, dives separated by about 6 nautical miles. First dive is 3.6 km long and between 570 and 200 m depth. Second dive is 3.0 km long and between 575-315 m depth. CTD casts during late evening hours. Transit to Day 2 site early morning (4/22), a distance of 36 nautical miles. Day 2 (4/22) Dive along the northern flank of Molokai, offshore of Kalaupapa Peninsula. Dive is 7.4 km long and between 3415 and 1145 m depth. Transit to Day 3 (4/23) site in early morning, a distance of 101 nautical miles. Day 3 (4/23) Dive along western flank of Hawaii, offshore of Mahukona. Dive is 8.0 km long and between 1200 and 1050 m depth. CTD casts during late evening hours. Transit to Day 4 (4/24) site during early morning hours, a distance of 43 nautical miles. Day 4 (4/24) Dive along the northeastern flank of Hawaii, offshore of Kohala Volcano. Dive is 7.0 km long and between 1355, 974, 1220 and 900 m depth. CTC casts during late evening hours. Transit to Day 5 (4/25) site during early morning hours, a distance of 6 nautical miles. Day 5 (4/25) Three short shallow dives along the northeast flank of Kohala Volcano. The first dive is 2.0 km long and between 710 and 680 m depth. The second is 3 nautical miles away, 2.75 km long, and between 420 and 395 m depth. The third is 4.5 nautical miles away, 2.65 km long between 295 and 150 m depth. CTD casts during late evening hours. Transit to Day 6 (4/26) site during early morning hours, a distance of 23 nautical miles. Day 6 (4/26) Three short dives in 200 to 500 of water depths to investigate the shallowest of the reef terraces. CTD casts during evening hours. Day 7 and 8 (4/26 to 4-28) Dive offshore Mahukona coast with CTD casts during evening hours. Potential dive sites for these days are all within a 20 nautical mile radius. Locations will vary according to dive results from Leg 2’s Mahukona dives and the dive on 4/23. In particular, if the sampling of carbonates has proven difficult with the normal sampling equipment, we may return to previous dive sites with the rock drill, In either case we would try to have at least two dives pre day. Day 7 (4/27) One or two dives in offshore Mahukona. The first is on a 3 km long transect from 1400 to 700 m water depths that goes up a relatively steep escarpment face. If there is are carbonates exposed on the cliff face, sampling will require the entire dive day. The second dive would be in 1000 m of water about 8 nautical miles away. CTD casts during late evening hours. Day 8 (4/28) Dive offshore Mahukona. Two dives on the reef terraces in probably between 1400 and 1200 m water depths. Again, location of dives will be very dependent on what areas early dives indicate. Transit to Day 9 (4/29) site during early morning hours, a distance of ~95 nautical miles. Day 9 (4/29) Dive along the northern flank of Molokai offshore of Kalaupapa. Dive is 6.0 km long and between 2015 and 1085 m depth. CTD casts during late evening hours. Transit to Day 9 (4/30) site during early morning hours, a distance of 43 nautical miles. Day 10 (4/30) Half day dive along the northeastern flank of Oahu, offshore of Kahalu. Dive is 3.3 km long and between 1600 and 1055 m depth. Afternoon, transit to Honolulu, a distance of 36 nautical miles for arrival at 5 pm.
Leg 4: Lava flows (May 9-18)
Scheduled Start Date: 2001-05-09 0800 Local Moss Landing time
Scheduled End Date : 22001-05-18 TBD Local Moss Landing time
Expedition Principal Investigator: David Clague
Expedition Chief Scientist: David Clague
This cruise has two main goals: 1) to sample young alkalic basalt vents and flows near Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau and 2) to collect heat flow data and cores from the north slope of Oahu.
Equipment Description (include weight if available):
- Benthic sled with manipulator
- drawer with partitions
- push cores with catchers
- vibra-peeper coring system
- heat-flow probe
- gravity corer and rock crusher for night operations
David Clague, Marcia McNutt, Kelsey Jordahl, Jennifer Reynolds (U. of Alaska), Jackie Dixon (U. of Miami), Jenny Paduan, Alice Davis, Brian Cousens (Carlton U., Canada), Ed Seidel (MBA), Ken Hon (U. of Hawaii, Hilo), Nancy Jacobsen-Stout
Planned Track Description:
The cruise will depart Honolulu at 8 am an May 9 and transit 56 nm to dive 5/9 site, arriving about 1:30-2 pm. A short dive will be done on a small volcanic cone at about 700 m depth that had an anomaly in the water column above the cone when mapped in Dec. 2000. The anomaly is most likely either magmatic gas bubbles or a hydrothermal plume and suggests that the cone may be recently or currently active. This dive should be completed by 8-9 pm. Following a 25 nm transit to the first of McNutt's 2 dive targets on the north slope of Oahu, several gravity cores would be collected during the night. Dive 5/10 would use the heat flow probe and collect 60-cm cores using the vibra-peeper device. This dive will be at about 3400-3460 m depth. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a short (4 nm) transit to dive 5/11, a second dive to collect heat flow data and 60-cm cores for conductivity measurements. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 45 nm transit to dive site 5/12. Dive 5/12 is the deepest dive on the entire Hawaii expedition, starting at 3925 m and ending at 3560 m, all on a group of young volcanic cones and flows in the channel between Oahu and Kauai. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 27 nm transit to the south flank of Kauai, where dive 5/13 will sample a series of volcanic vents related to the rejuvenated-stage lavas on Kauai, the Koloa Volcanics. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 46 nm transit to dive 5/14, located on the northwest flank of Niihau. This dive will start at 3220 m depth and end at about 1630 m and survey and sample a series of flat-topped volcanic cones. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 15 nm transit to dive 5/15. Dive 5/15, also on the northwest flank of Niihau, will survey and sample several additional flat-topped cones and a pointed volcanic cone near the northwest rift zone on Niihau between 2720 and 1910 m depth. Night operations will consist of gravity coring and a 12 nm transit to the third and final dive on Niihau. Dive 5/16 will survey and sample more of the flat-topped cones including one with a perched lava pond at its summit. The dive will start at 1680m and work up to 1260 m depth. Night operations will consist of gravity coring followed by a 47 nm transit back to the south flank of Kauai and dive 5/17. This dive will sample a series of volcanic cones near those of dive 5/13. Night operations will consist of gravity coring followed by a 27 nm transit to the final dive site in the channel between Oahu and Kauai. Dive 5/18 will probably need to start earlier than normal in order to complete the dive in time to transit the 78 nm to Honolulu to arrive by 5 pm. The dive is at about 2960 m depth, but is relatively short.
Leg 5: Iron mapping (May 22 - June 2)
Scheduled Start Date: 2001-05-22 0800 Local Moss Landing time
Scheduled End Date : 2001-06-02 TBD Local Moss Landing time
Expedition Principal Investigator: Ken Johnson
Expedition Chief Scientist: Ken Johnson
Objective is to compare surface water iron and aluminum concentrations during a "dust" season to those of a "non-dust" season (the transit to Hawaii). Underway mapping of surface water Iron and Aluminum with tow-fish pneumatic pumping system. Rosette/CTD casts at 8 stations of approximately 2 hrs each to collect metal, nutrient and chlorophyll samples to augment surface mapping findings.
Equipment Description (include weight if available):
- WF Rosette/CTD (+ our mini rosette, 150lbs.)
- Water purification system with approximately 5 gal per day usage
- 2 steel tow fish + block + pump, 350lbs
- 3 Flow Injection Analysis System, 300 lbs
- Chemicals, 40lbs
- DJs underway mapping system, 25lbs
- Francisco Chavez's chlorophyll filtration manifold and fluorometer, 40lbs
Ken Johnson (male), Ginger Elrod (female), Steve Fitzwater (male), Hans Jannasch (male, tentative) and Josh Plant (male, tentative)
Planned Track Description:
Return transit from Hawaii to Moss Landing.
This Hawaii expedition is multidisciplinary in nature and the various legs reflect the diversity of interests and objectives. In addition to the geological objectives listed below, MBARI is also utilizing the transit times both to Hawaii (Leg 1) and back to Monterey (Leg 5).
Hawaii remains the laboratory of choice for studies on submarine (and subaerial) volcanic processes because of the young age and freshness of the landforms and volcanic surfaces. In addition, because the Hawaiian volanoes are so large, the processes that degrade the volcanoes, such as massive landslides, or simply submerge the volcanoes are accentuated. Not only are Hawaiian volcanoes the largest in the world with the highest eruption rates (averaged over time), but the landslides that degrade the volcanoes are also the largest volcanic landslides in the world.
The Hawaiian Islands are formed from an amazing range of lava compositions that have different gas contents, crystal contents, viscosities, eruption rates and volumes, and eruption depths-all in lavas less than a few million years old. The low sedimentation rates on the flanks of the islands and their young age makes the use of visual observations, such as those obtained with Tiburon, particularly valuable. The variety of lava chemistries erupted on the seafloor adjacent to the islands also provide a powerful method to examine the structure of the Hawaiian plume as each type of lava is generated from a mix of mantle source components that have been proposed to have a concentric spatial configuration. Alkalic lavas have proved to contain important information about magma genesis in Hawaii (Clague, 1987) and the structure of the Hawaiian plume. All of the sampled lavas from the deep flanks the islands have proven to be such alkalic lavas. The only way to test the petrologic models for plume geometry is by analyzing lavas from around the islands-those that erupted below sea level, commonly at great depths. In particular, submarine erupted lavas preserve enough of their original volatile contents (Clague and Dixon, 2000), and their pre-eruptive contents can be calculated from what remains, to evaluate the important role of volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and rare gases) in melting processes and in the different plume components.
Hawaii also turns out to be an excellent place to study long-term climate change because the rapid subsidence (caused by lithospheric flexure under the enormous weight of the volcanoes) coupled with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations results in formation of a series of stairstep drowned coral reefs that encircle much of the island flanks. Many of the known reefs (from Maui westward) are too old to reliably date (U-Th techniques are presently limited to less than about 500,000 years), but most of the seven drowned reefs around Hawaii have been roughly dated and correlated to specific stages in the Pleistocene seawater isotopic record. Each reef forms during periods when sea level is falling slowly, dissolves to form subaerial karst when sea level falls more rapidly than island subsidence, and drowns when global sea level rises. The reefs thus record, in high fidelity, the interplay of island subsidence (and tilting) and climate change. This relationship has been exploited to roughly determine the rates of island subsidence for Hawaii (e.g. Moore and Clague, 1992). In addition, the top of each reef is a time horizon, and evaluation of the chemistry of the lavas that were emplaced on top of each reef allows one to reconstruct the geologic evolution of particular regions (Clague and Moore, 1991) or for the entire island of Hawaii (Moore and Clague, 1992).
The following sections outline specific targets for dives with Tiburon in Hawaii, all tied to the large themes outlined in the general project proposal. Manned submersibles have done considerable work around Hawaii, most notably the Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratorie’s (HURL) Pisces V submersible and the programs run by JAMSTEC using the R/V Karei and ROV Kaiko in 1998 and the R/V Yokosuka and 6500-m submersible Shinkai in 1999. The Kaiko and Shinkai programs focussed largely on deep targets related to giant landslides (Nuuanu and Hilina slides on Oahu and Kilauea, respectively) and on deep (>4 km depth) hydrothermal discharge from Loihi. The Pisces V is limited to operations in <2000 m and has focused its operations for much of the past 14 years on Loihi Seamount. Recent changes in the scientific objectives of the NOAA- NURP programs have shifted HURL’s program almost entirely into fisheries-related work and bioproducts research (bacteria studies on Loihi)-geologic studies like those proposed here are no longer within the scope of HURL and therefore the Pisces V submersible is no longer a viable option for future work in Hawaii.
Most of the objectives and targets outlined below are either too deep for Pisces to operate or use special ROV tools (e,g,, rockdrill, vibracorer, impact glass sampler, box corer) that MBARI has developed. A few dives in <2 km of water will be utilized to locate specific targets for more special operations (e.g., use of the vibracorer or rockdrill) and a few others will capitalize on our ability to do back-to-back dives on multiple shallow targets during a single dive day, unlike manned submersibles which can do only a single launch and recovery each day. The long duration of ROV dives in comparison to manned submersible dives, coupled with use of the impact glass sampler also allows us to complete long traverses while collecting many more samples than could be recovered by manned submersibles. Each target has multiple objectives with observations of volcanic landforms coupled with geochemical studies of recovered samples that will address important questions about the geometry of the components that make up the Hawiian plume and degassing of magmas of different compositions. Dives along drowned coral reefs will also be used to collect volcanic samples providing samples to address questions related to geologic historical reconstructions and petrology of the lavas, in addition to subsidence and climate change.
This proposal requests 28 Tiburon dive days, admittedly a large number of dive days. Most of these dives will include benthic biology observations and some biological sampling with Jim Barry and George Matsumoto as successfully done on Pioneer, Guide, Gumdrop, Taney, and Davidson Seamounts in 2000. Hawaii is the primary study area for Clague, as it has been for nearly 30 years. The Western Flyer will return to Hawaii no sooner than 2004, so this expedition will provide the data for several years of lab analysis and writing. All but two of the dives proposed are within areas surveyed with the Simrad EM300 system in 1998, so excellent basemaps are in hand.
Dive Targets and Scientific Rationale
1. Loihi Seamount
The summit of Loihi Seamount is partly covered by volcaniclastic sedimentary deposits that were discovered and sampled during a series of submersible dives with the Pisces V in 1996, 1997, and 1998 (done by invitation from Frank Sansone and Geoff Wheat in 1996 and 1997 and as a HURL-funded 3-dive program with Rodey Batiza and Jim Head in 1998). The deposits found in the first two years consisted of thin sand units with ripple marks that included bubble-wall fragments indicating that mild explosive activity had occurred on the summit of Loihi (Clague et al., 2000). This discovery led us to explore more specifically for thicker explosive deposits on the summit, which were then found in 1998. The deposits discovered in 1998 include an 11-m section of ash exposed along an inward-facing normal fault, identified in the MBARI Simrad bathymetric data collected in 1998, that defines a caldera complex on the flat summit region of the volcano. Some samples were collected, mainly using sediment scoops that mixed the materials from different layers. Other dives in the summit region suggest that these deposits cover much of the summit platform, particularly on its eastern side. The ash sequence consists of bedded deposits of alternating fine and coarse ash to gravel that were deposited during a variety of submarine explosive eruptions. The eruptions include Strombolian-style that produced scoria and built cinder cones, Hawaiian-style fire fountains that produced widespread deposits of lava bubble-wall fragments in silt- to clay-sized glass matrix, and phreatic explosive-style eruptions that excavated hydrothermally altered lavas and hydrothermal sulfides and sulfate deposits from the subsurface and scattered fragments of them across the summit region of Loihi. Such rapidly quenched glasses are ideal for volatile exsolution studies and we are currently analyzing some of the 1998 samples to estimate their pre=eruptive volatile contents.The scoop samples contain rare foraminifers that may occur in specific layers formed during hiatuses in eruptive activity and rare ash fragments from explosive eruptions on Kilauea Volcano. Both the foraminifers and Kilauea ashes may serve to provide age control on the ash sequence. We (Davis and Clague, 1998) have speculated that such explosive eruptions may be related to collapse events such as that in 1996 that formed a new pit crater 300 m deep and about 1-km in diameter (The Loihi Science Team, 1997).
These deposits record the explosive eruptive history of Loihi Seamount for many thousands of years, perhaps as long as 25 ka and thus provide an opportunity to evaluate the frequency and style of such explosive activity on a submarine volcano at relatively shallow depths. The 11-m section we have located has been sampled with two 25 cm pushcores and half a dozen sediment scoops that demonstrate that most of the Hawaiian-style eruptions are alkalic basalt in composition. To decipher the type of eruptions that form the different layers, it is important to be able to sample the layers without contamination as one important criterion to distinguish the different types of activity is the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the glass fragments in a single layer. The sediment scoop samples are always contaminated with surficial material that mantles the slope. In addition, to determine the timing of these deposits, we need to recover enough foraminifera tests to date using 14C techniques. The recovered samples contain some foraminifers, but we did not encounter any layers with enough for dating. Hopefully, a more complete section will recover some layers with abundant foraminifers accumulated during eruptive hiatuses from which we can obtain ages. Additionally, samples of ash from several other locations on Loihi contain fragments of glass from explosive eruptions on Kilauea Volcano. None of these fragments were found in the samples from the thick section, although they are almost certainly present. The compositions of glasses from all the large explosive eruptions on Kilauea during the past 50 ka are well-documented and well-dated (Clague et al., 1995, and in preparation) and may provide additional age control on the Loihi section.
I propose to use the ROV-mounted vibracorer developed at MBARI to collect a series of overlapping cores in order to sample the entire section. This request requires a vibracorer that operates from Tiburon (planned for completion in 2000 by Tiburon pilot group) and 6-8 short, 1050-m dives with Tiburon, with each dive recovering part of the section. The first dive would explore the fault scarp to find the best site for the subsequent coring and would leave a Homer beacon to mark the site; this dive could be coupled to deployment of one of the seismic instruments proposed in the Caress "Microseismicity of Loihi Seamount" proposal. Each subsequent dive can be as short as about 2.5-4 hours, with the sole objective to collect one vibracore from the section. Collection of a complete section of these ashes is something MBARI is uniquely positioned to accomplish because of the vibracorer capability development in 2000 led by Charlie Paull. This Loihi program requires one short (probably 6-hr dive) and 2-3 12-hour Tiburon operational days each with multiple deployments. All but the uppermost core would have to be obtained from a steeply-sloping (30-40°) bottom since the only place the section is exposed is along normal faults. The materials to be cored are sand to gravel with some thin (5 cm) interbeds of siltstone and are ideal for sampling with a vibracorer. The summit region of Loihi has only very sparse animals, so biologic collecting and observation will not be a significant objective on the dive to locate the coring site.
2. Papa’u Seamount
Papa’u Seamount is a large mound located along the southwest transverse margin of the active Hilina Slump on Kiluaea (Moore et al., 1989). It was originally though to be a sandy debris flow derived from collapse of a shoreline lava delta. Interpretation of recently collected seismic data and MBARI’s Simrad bathymetry indicate that it is a coherent west-vergent fold developed along an east-dipping fault that defines the southwestern boundary of the mobile south flank of Kilauea Volcano (Morgan et al., submitted). Our analysis of the structures in this region suggests that the main thrust fault is exposed along the western flank of Papa’u Seamount and that we should be able to map the fault zone and determine the lithologies of the rocks both above and below the thrust. The formation of Papa’u Seamount is a key to understanding the formation and structure of the entire Hilina Slump and in understanding the formation of giant landslides in Hawaii. Results from some of the Kaiko and Shinkai dives elsewhere in the Hilina slump have found submarine-erupted alkalic and transitional basalts indicative of the earliest (Loihi) stage of volcano growth (Naka et al., 2000). The locations of the proposed Papa’u dives are stratigraphically between these early (deep) lavas and lavas more typical of present-day Kilauea. The chemistry of samples from these dives will help constrain the volume of this early alkalic-tranistional stage in the development of Hawaiian volcanoes.
We request 2 dives to map and sample the thrust fault and the rocks above and below it along the southwestern margin of the Hilina Slump. These dives will mainly be observational and collection of rocks and sand; they are 2100 to 1300 m deep but should benefit from the ability to collect sandy sediments using the MBARI box corer. Only one of these two dives is too deep for Pisces operations, but the two dives are a package adequate to address the questions posed. In addition, MBARI has unique capabilities to collect sandy sediments using the hydraulic box corer developed in 2000 and the push-cores with special core catchers requested for development in 2001.
3. Puna Ridge
The submarine east rift zone of Kilauea has been extensively studied during the last ten years because it provides an opportunity to study the submarine portion of a well-studied subaerial volcanic system. The morphology of the ridge has been defined from SeaBeam mapping of the entire ridge (Clague et al., 1993), Simrad mapping as deep as 3500 m (done by MBARI in 1998), and AMS-120 mapping of the ridge axis (done by WHOI with MBARI postdoc Jennifer Reynolds as a participant. Samples have been collected from along the ridge by dredging starting in 1964 and by rock corer (MBARI’s rock crusher) in 1998. A few submersible dives, using the Seacliff, were done in the 1980s and in 1991. Most of the lavas recovered are differentiated basalts with eruption temperatures between about 1120 and 1140°C-slightly lower than most historical subaerial eruptions. However, I discovered some unusual glass grains in a boxcore adjacent to Kilauea Volcano in 1988. These glasses contain up to 15% MgO and had eruption temperatures in excess of 1320°C-making them the most magnesian glasses with the highest eruption temperatures of any on Earth (Clague et al., 1991, 1995; Wagner et al., 1998). The eruption and flow characteristics of such hot, fluid lavas are essentially unknown, but may provide an analogy to understand emplacement of Archaen komatiite flows. The chemistry of the glasses shows that they erupted from Kilauea Volcano.
Detailed analysis of the volatile components trapped in these glass sand grains indicate that they erupted at depths of about 2000-2150 m, presumably along the axis of the Puna Ridge (Clague et al., 1995). These glasses are mixed with another type of unusual glass-one that is bubble-rich and slightly enriched in alkalis and depleted in silica (a transitional basalt) compared to most basalt from Kilauea (Clague et al., 1995). Several unusual steep-sided conical vents were mapped by the MBARI Simrad survey in 1998 at about the depth estimated for eruption of these two unusual compositions. These vents contrast with the more typical flat-topped low-aspect-ratio cones (Clague et al., 2000) and linear spatter ramparts seen along all the surveyed submarine rift zones in Hawaii. We suspect that the lavas with the unusual chemistries had either more voluminous and/or more explosive eruptions than the typical Kilauea basalt and therefore constructed these unusual cones. Another fluid lava flow, of alkalic basalt, was mapped in the Hawaiian Deep by the GLORIA surveys in the late 1980s and sampled by dredge in 1988 9Clague et al., in preparation) and again by the Shinkai 6500 submersible in 1999. However, the vents for this flow, which are located at about 3900 m on the south flank of the Puna Ridge based on their volatile contents, have not been found. Collection of near-vent lava is important to determine the volatile content of this flow and to determine the morphology of this high-volume, fluid flow and its vent.
We request three 12-hr Tiburon dives to explore the unusual steep-sided cone-shaped vent at 2100 m and the vents in the region that might be the source for the high-MgO glass sands, and to search for the approximately 3900-m-deep vent of the voluminous alkalic basalt flow that ponded in the Hawaiian deep. All these dives are too deep (I is just barely too deep) for Pisces V operations. The deposits that make up these vents could be composed mainly of volcanic sands, so the MBARI boxcorer and new push cores with special core catchers would be deployed on these dives. In addition, the MBARI impact glass sampler, with initial development and testing (on Gorda Ridge in August) in 2000, would be used to collect numerous glass samples from these young lava flows. The system would be more useful if a larger capacity carousel (48 samples instead of the current 12) was developed early in 2001.
4. Haleakala East Rift Zone
The submarine east rift zone on Haleakala extends about 135 km from the present shoreline. The shallower half of the rift is characterized by a smooth surface and numerous shoreline terraces, indicating that the region has subsided at least 2200 m and tipped towards the younger Hawaii Island to the south (Moore et al., 1990). Dredging the largest of these submerged terraces recovered corals that proved too old to reliably date using U-series analyses, suggesting that this prominent terrace is older (>500 thousand years) than the oldest terrace found around Hawaii. This once-subaerial surface is disrupted by a cluster of about 20 steep-sided cones (all shallower than about 1 km depth)-only one of which has been sampled. These cones are structurally distinct from subaerial cinder cones (they have no summit craters) and hence are thought to have formed below sea level. Below the deepest shoreline feature, the submarine rift zone resembles the rift zones of Kilauea, Mahukona, and Hilo Ridge with numerous flat-topped volcanic cones (Clague et al., 2000) and linear pillow ridges. In addition, two perched lava ponds were discovered in the Simrad dataset (Clague et al., 2000). These ponds, each several km across, formed above submarine eruptive fissures, built lava levees, and then drained (either back down the eruptive vent or out the side of the pond). Such features indicate that submarine eruptions can be voluminous enough to maintain lava ponds on the seafloor. Exploration of one of these features should confirm our morphologic analysis and provide information about the chemistry, eruptive temperature, and rheology of the lava that built such features.
We request three dive days with two used to map and collect lava and hyaloclastite from as many of the shallow cones as possible and determining the style (pillows, hyaloclastite, blocky flows) of the erupted lava. These two days would each consist of several short dives in succession, an operational mode only MBARI can do. The ability to collect loose volcanic sand using the box corer or newly designed push cores may also be critical to sampling these cones, which apparently formed by explosive eruptions. The third dive day would examine the lava pond at 2400 m depth and the adjacent cones. This dive is too deep for Pisces V operations. The coral terraces, while scientifically exciting targets, will not be explored further until some new radiometric technique is developed that can date the recovered samples (no technique exists at present).
5. Submarine Flows and Cones between Oahu and Kauai and around Niihau
GLORIA mapping around the Hawaiian Islands identified numerous cones and high-backscatter lava flows on the seafloor in four areas: 1) north of Oahu (the North Arch lavas described by Clague et al., 1990; Dixon et al., 1997; and Frey et al., 2000 and mapped by GLORIA and SeaBeam 2100 collected by Clague on a JAMSTEC cruise in 1999), 2) west of Oahu (mapped by GLORIA imagery and transit SeaBeam lines), 3) on the southeast flank of Kauai (mapped by Simrad EM300 by U.S. Geological Survey), and particularly 4) west of Niihau Island (mapped by Simrad EM300 by MBARI). The Simrad mapping of the region northwest of Niihau in 1998 revealed that the cones are large flat-topped cones with steep sides (Clague et al., 2000) despite their inferred alkalic compositions which contrast with the tholeiitic basalt compositions of similar cones along the rift zones. These cones are scattered over the seafloor from about 1500 to >5000 m depth and provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand degassing of magmas erupted at different depths or confining pressures. These cones have been interpreted to belong to the rejuvenated stage of volcanism and to correlate with the Kiekie Volcanics on Niihau (Clague, unpub. data), the Koloa Volcanics on Kauai (Clague and Dalrymple, 1988), the Honolulu Volcanics on Oahu (Clague and Frey, 1982), and the Kalaupapa Basalt on Molokai (Clague et al., 1982). They should retain significant volatile components, particularly those erupted at the greatest depths. The combination of quenched, relatively-primitive glasses and fresh lava interiors makes such samples ideal to evaluate the spatial distribution of the different mantle source components that melt to produce Hawaiian magmas. In particular, these submarine lavas allow us to include volatile components in our analysis of plume components since the quenched glasses will retain much of their initial complement of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and rare gases. We have arranged for state-of-the-art volatile analyses of these samples with collaborators Hanyu (rare-gases) and Dixon (water and carbon dioxide). We will determine the degassing history of these lavas as done for Kilauea and North Arch lavas (Dixon et al., 1991, 1997). The rejuvenated stage lavas from the North Arch and those from the main islands are derived mainly from a depleted lithospheric source, but one that has been modified by addition of a component from the Hawaiian plume (Frey et al., 2000; Dixon and Clague, 2000). We hope to define this component and its distribution in space and time. These cones and flows are fairly large and it is unlikely we will be able to sample more than 2 or 3 vents on a single dive, hence our request for so many dives for this important objective.
We request 9 12-hr Tiburon dives to sample and observe the structures of cones from between Kauai and Oahu, on the south flank of Kauai, and from a range of depths on Niihau’s northwest flank. The dives are designed to observe the range of volcanic landforms identified in the Simrad data in order to understand their formation, and to collect samples from as wide an area and as great a depth range as possible. Most of these dives are in water too deep for Pisces V operations, but several, selected to provide more complete spatial coverage, are <2,000 m deep. The ability of the ROV to cover more ground (up to 4 km at 3,500 m depth) than can be done during a typical Pisces dives (usually <1.5 km) makes the ROV the ideal vehicle to examine these large features. In shallower water, traverses can be even longer, or two dives may be accomplished in a single work day. The plan is to steam west from Honolulu about 4 hrs and dive in the channel between Oahu and Kauai, then to go to the south flank of Kauai (another 4 hr steam), and then on to Niihau’s west flank (another roughly 4-hr steam), then reverse the steps so that no transits monger than about 4 hrs are required. These samples will form the basis of a study of the geochemistry of rejuvenated stage lavas erupted near the center of the plume trace and should serve to define source region mixing near the margins of the Hawaiian plume.
6. Kohala Terrace
To the west of Kohala Volcano on Hawaii, a shallow submarine terrace extends westwards. The terrace is built of a series of seven prominent coral terraces ranging from 150 to 1325 m deep. Most of these terraces have been sampled previously and the recovered corals dated using 14C and U-Th techniques (see summary in Clague and Moore, 1991). They range in age from 15 ka for the shallowest terrace to about 600 ka for the deepest. The Simrad surveys revealed karst-like topography on three of these terraces, with the most prominent on the 400 m (125 thousand year old) terrace. Computer modelling using the "REEFGROW" program developed in FY2000 by Rich Schramm for Clague shows that each terrace is a complex structure built during periods when sea level is falling, but more slowly than the island is subsiding, or when sea level is rising slowly relative to the shoreline. During certain periods of rapid sea level falls (near the onset of glacial periods), the reefs may actually be lifted above sea level, allowing for subaerial dissolution and formation of karst topography. The reefs drown during periods of rapid sea level rise. The models also show that the steep outer reef faces, assuming even minimal dissolution or erosion, probably expose an nearly complete sequence of corals built up over long time periods.
Superposed on the sequence of reefs are a series of lava flows from several volcanoes, including a group of radial fissures (fissures not aligned along rift zones) that probably are part of Mauna Loa Volcano. At the western edge of the terrace, a submarine rift zone extends to the west. This rift zone is apparently part of a separate volcano named Mahukono Volcano (Clague and Moore, 1991)), not exposed above present sea level. Like other submarine rift zones, it is characterized by common flat-topped cones (Clague et al., 2000) and linear ramparts, but also by several complex, steep, smooth cones. This region is the key to understanding much of the history of Hawaii since the reefs provide timelines and the lava flows in the area come from Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai Volcanoes. Clague and Jim Moore did an entire HURL-funded program of Pisces V submersible dives in this region in 1988 and a modest dredging program the same year. However, the new MBARI Simrad bathymetric data highlight some key features that were unknown when the previous programs were completed. The models of reef formation suggest that details of the Pleistocene record of glacial-intergacial periods have been smoothed by time averaging. We hope to extract some of these details from the reef morphology and ages.
We request 7 dive days (3 under this proposal and 4 under Paull "Continental margins fluids and gases" proposal). Three dive days will be spent doing observations and sample collection using the manipulator and locating the best sites for using the rockdrill. One dive will be located on the deepest (1325-m) terrace and upper part of the rift zone of Mahukona Volcano where a huge pillow ridge and several steep-sided cones occur. Another dive day will be used to collect lava on two 5.5-hr dives in succession from two radial fissures that cross the 1150-m terrace, the coral terrace itself, and samples from within karst "blue holes". The third day, exploring the 400-m reef, will consist of three 3.5-hr dives in succession to examine the karst topography, and collect volcanic and coral samples from the 400-m terrace and karst topography. If fluids are discovered flowing through the carbonates, water samples will be collected for analysis by Paull. The 4 Paull dive days would be spent using the MBARI rock drill to sample a sequence of corals from the reef face of the 400-m and 1150-m terraces to test the models for reef growth revealed by the REEFGROW computer program. Each dive day will probably consist of several dives in sequence as these dives should be of short duration. The drilling will be rapid because the materials are very soft but the conditions will be challenging since the reef face is a solid pavement with a 30° slope. Charlie Paull will be the MBARI lead scientist on 2 dive days and Clague will be for the 3 dive days doing observations and sample collection. Clague will also participate in the dives with Paull and assist with analysis of the samples recovered.
7. Hilo Ridge
Hilo Ridge was long thought to be the submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea Volcano (e.g., Yang et al., 1994, 1998), but is now proposed to be the submarine southeast rift zone of Kohala Volcano (Holcomb et al., 2000). Samples collected from the rift zone have variable chemisty-some of the dredged samples are geochemically similar to lavas from Kohala, Mauna Kea, and even Kilauea, but none are geochemically similar to the Mauna Kea lavas from near the bottom of the 1.1-km Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project pilot hole drilled near Hilo (Stolper et al., 1996).Younger flank eruptions from Mauna Kea Volcano almost certainly occur in the area, as vents from Mauna Kea are scattered over a large region on land. However, the rift zone is characterized by numerous flat-topped low-aspect ratio cones (Clague et al., 2000) and two submarine (lacking summit craters) steep-sided cones that are probably constructed of alkalic basalt after the tholeiitic shield volcano had been constructed. We want to sample and date (using Ar-Ar techniques) several of the flat-topped cones along the rift to determine if they are similar in age and chemically similar to shield lavas from Kohala or Mauna Kea volcanoes. In addition, we want to confirm that the steep cones are composed of alkalic basalts, determine their eruptive style and depth, and determine when they erupted, providing a maximum age for the end of shield building. These parameters are important in defining the history of the island of Hawaii, the likely character of lava (Mauna Kea or Kohala) to be encountered in the NSF-funded continuation of the already 3-km-deep Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project main hole, and in interpreting the origin of submarine volcanic landforms. These dives form a continuation of a study begun in fall 1998 when Clague used three MBARI-supported Pisces V dives to map 4 flat-topped cones on the flank of Kohala Volcano and determine their compositions. Analyses of these samples establish the compositions of Kohala shield lavas (those exposed on land are too altered) and form the basis for this comparative study. These dives also build on the MBARI Simrad mapping of Hilo Ridge and Kohala Volcanoes done in 1998.
The rift is also surmounted by a series of three extensive coral terraces at 1150, 400 and 150-m depths. These coral terraces correlate with dated terraces at similar depths on the west side of the island that are 15, 125, and 425 thousand years old (summary in Moore and Clague, 1992). Several additional terraces between the 125 and 425 ka terraces present on the west side of the island are missing here. The terraces drowned during sea level fluctuations when sea level rose faster than the reefs could grow at the onset of interglacial periods during the Pleistocene. Confirming that the reefs are indeed correlated correctly with those from the west side of the island is critical to determining the subsidence of the island and whether Hawaii has tipped significantly. In addition, a small reef terrace at about 380-m depth is evident in the bathymetry, but is never modelled, suggesting that the sea level variation curves for the Pleistocene-the best record of long-term climatic change-have smoothed out some real sea level fluctuations. Collection and dating of samples from this reef would allow us to determine when this sea level fluctuation took place.
We request four 12-hr Tiburon dives to observe and collect lava and coral samples from the cones and terraces outlined above. The 400-m terrace is partly overrun by subsequent lavas from Mauna Kea Volcano, whereas the 1150-m terrace has some small cones from an unknown volcano built on top. One dive will collect both the corals and the lavas draping the 400 and the 380-m terraces and another will attempt to sample the 1150-m terrace, where prior dredging (two attempts) failed to recover coralline material. Two dives will explore several of the flat-topped and pointed cones along the deeper (>2000-m) part of the rift. The impact glass sampler will be used here since the lavas have only thin (1 mm) Mn-oxide crusts (as seen in the few dredged samples from the rift) and the box corer should also be useful.
8. Volcanic Vent northeast of Oahu
The northeast flank of Oahu shares many characteristics with the north slope of Molokai. The outer part of an terrace is punctuated by a large volcanic cone, most probably related to the rejuvenated stage Honolulu Volcanics on Oahu (Clague and Frey, 1982). This area was mapped with the Simrad EM300 system by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1998, just before the MBARI surveys were collected. The objectives in sampling this cone are similar to those outlined in the section on "Submarine cones and flows" and it is singled out here simply because it is located in a different region.
We request 1 short (6-hr) Tiburon dive to map and sample the deepest (and least degassed) of the volcanic cones of the Honolulu Volcanics. This cone is structurally simple and the summit is at a depth of only about 800 m, so the dive to explore the summit and collect the lava flows and hyaloclastite can be short. Collection of submarine-erupted lavas allows for analysis of rare gas and volatile components in the quenched glasses, as well as better whole-rock trace element analyses since the submarine lavas are far less altered than those exposed to subaerial weathering (rainfall leaches many components from the subaerial lavas after their emplacement), as outlined under the "Submarine Cones and flows" section of this proposal.
Clague, D. A., 1987, Hawaiian Alkaline Volcanism, in Alkaline Igneous Rocks, ed. by Fitton, J. G., and Upton, B. G. J., Geological Society Special Publication, No. 30, p. 227-252.
Clague, D.A., Beeson, M.H., Denlinger, R.P., and Mastin, L.G., Ancient ash deposits and calderas at Kilauea Volcano, EOS., v. 76, p. F666.
Clague, D. A., and Dalrymple, G. B., 1988, Age and petrology of alkalic postshield and rejuvenated stage lava from Kauai, Hawaii. Contrib. to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 99, p. 202-218.
Clague, D. A., Dao-gong, C., Murnane, R., Beeson, M.H., Lanphere, M.A., Dalrymple, G.B., Friesen, W., and Holcomb, R.T., 1982, Age and Petrology of the Kalaupapa Basalt, Molokai, Hawaii, Pacific Science, 36, p. 411-420.
Clague, D.A., Davis, A.S., Bischoff, J.L., Dixon, J.E., and Geyer, R., 2000a, Bubble-wall fragments formed by submarine steam explosions on Loihi Seamount and Kilauea Volcano: Implications for phreatomagmatic eruptions. Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 61, p.437-449.
Clague, D.A. and Dixon, J.E., 2000, Environmental effects on the evolution of oceanic volcanoes, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v.1, 12p.
Clague, D. A., and Frey, F. A., 1982, Petrology and trace element geochemistry of the Honolulu Volcanic Series, Oahu: Implications for the oceanic mantle below Hawaii, Jour. Petrology, 23, 447-504.
Clague, D. A., Holcomb, R.T., Sinton, J.M., Detrick, R.S., and Torresan, M.E., 1990, Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian Islands. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, v. 98, p. 175-191.
Clague, D.A., Hon, K.A., Anderson, J.L., Chadwick, W.W. Jr., and Fox, C. G., 1993, Bathymetry of Puna Ridge, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Map MF-2237.
Clague, D. A., and Moore, J.G., 1991, Geology and petrology of Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii. Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 53, p.159-172.
Clague, D. A., Moore, J.G., Dixon, J.E., and Friesen, W.B., 1995, Petrology of submarine lavas from Kilauea's Puna Ridge, Hawaii. Journal of Petrology, v. 36, p. 299-349.
Clague, D.A., Moore, J.G., and Reynolds, J.R., 2000b, Formation of submarine truncated volcanic cones in Hawaii. Bulletin of Volcanology, in press.
Clague, D. A., Weber, W.S., and Dixon, J.E., 1991, Picritic glasses from Hawaii. Nature, v. 353, p. 553-556.
Davis, A. and Clague, D.A., 1998, Changes in the hydrothermal system at Loihi Seamount after the formation of Pele’s pit in 1996. Geology, v. 26, p. 399-402.
Dixon, J.E., and Clague, D.A., 2000, Volatiles in basaltic glass from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii: Evidence for a relatively dry plume component. Journal of Petrology, in press.
Dixon, J.E., Clague, D.A., Poreda, R., and Wallace, P., 1997, Volatiles in alkalic basalts from the North Arch Volcanic Field, Hawaii: Extensive degassing of deep submarine-erupted alkalic series lavas. Jour. Petrology, v. 38, p. 911-939.
Dixon, J.E., Clague, D. A., Stolper, E.M., 1991, Degassing history of water, sulfur, and carbon in submarine lavas from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Journal of Geology, v. 99, p. 371-394.
Frey, F.A., Clague, D.A., Mahoney, J., and Sinton, J., 2000, Volcanism at the edge of the Hawaiian plume: Petrogenesis of submarine alkalic lavas from the North Arch Volcanic Field. Journal of Petrology, 41, 667-691.
Holcomb, R.T., Nelson, B.K., Reiners, P.W., and Sawyer, N.-L., 2000, Overlapping volcanoes: The origin of Hilo Ridge, Hawaii. Geology, v. 28, p.547-550.
Moore, J.G., and Clague, D. A., 1992, Growth of the island of Hawaii. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v.104, p.1471-1484.
Moore, J.G., Clague, D. A., Holcomb, R.T., Lipman, P.W., Normark, W.R., and Torreson, M., 1989, Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge, Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 94, p. 17465-17484.
Moore, J.G., Clague, D. A., Ludwig, K.R., and Mark, R.K., 1990, Subsidence and volcanism of the Haleakala Ridge, Hawaii. Jour. Volc. and Geothermal Research, v. 42, p. 273-284.
Morgan, J.K., Moore, G.F., and Clague, D.A., 2001, Papa`u Seamount: the submarine expression of the active Hilina slump, south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research, submitted.
Naka, J., Takahashi, E., Clague, D.A., and many others, 2000, Tectono-Magmatic processes on submarine flanks of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Japanese-USA cooperative studies. EOS, v. 81, p. 221-227.
Stolper, E.M., DePaolo, D.J., and Thomas, D.M., 1996, Introduction to special section: Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, J. Geophys. Res., v. 101, p. 11,593-11,598.
The 1996 Loihi Science Team (includes D. Clague), 1997, Researchers rapidly respond to submarine activity at Loihi Volcano, Hawaii. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, v. 78, p. 229-233.
Wagner, T.P., Clague, D.A., Hauri, E.H., and Grove, T.L., 1998, Trace-element abundances of high-MgO glasses from Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Haleakala volcanoes, Hawaii. Contibutions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 131, p.13-21.
Yang H.-J., Frey, F.A., Clague, D.A., and Garcia, M.O., 1999, Mineral chemistry of submarine lavas from the Hilo Ridge, Hawaii: Implications for magmatic processes within Hawaiian rift zones. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 135, 355-372.
Yang, H.-J., Frey, F.A., Garcia, M.O., and Clague, D.A., 1994, Submarine lavas from Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Implications for Hawaiian shield-stage processes. Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 99, p. 15,577-15,594.
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