Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Hawaii Cruise
March 13, 2001 to June 2, 2001
Monterey to Hawaii and back
Cruise Participants, Leg 3

Click on any name below to read an interview:
Leg 1 Crew; Leg 2 Crew; Leg 3 Crew; Leg 4 Crew; Leg 5 Crew; Western Flyer Crew

Click on any name to read an interview:
Dave Caress, Dave Clague, Judith Connor, Gary Greene, Norm Maher
Billy Moore (University South Carolina), James Moore (USGS), D.J. Osborn
Jenny Paduan, Bill Ussler, Charlie Paull

Dave Clague
MBARI Geologist (Volcanology)
http://www.mbari.org/staff/clague

What is your role on this cruise?
Expedition Coordinator/ Chief Scientist on Legs 2 and 4

What are your primary goals?
Understanding submarine volcanism around Hawaii, subsidence history of the islands, landslide structure.

What do you expect to find?
What types of lavas form what types of volcanic landforms, corals from drowned coral reefs to determine subsidence rates of islands, evidence for explosive submarine eruptions.

What is your favorite part of a research cruise?
Favorite part is being able to test ideas and modify the research plan to test new ideas developed from the early results. Least favorite part is being away from my wife and daughter.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one? 
Science is being able to keep asking "why?, how?, when? questions like we asked when we were young-we just ask more sophisticated questions now. I have always wanted to know how the natural world work. I started as an physics major in college, then switched to geology quite late (because of one class and one great professor), went to graduate school in oceanography/earth science. Most important thing to becoming a good ocean scientist is to have broad scientific background and interests. I took nearly a full major in physics and math, lots of chemistry, and some biology as an undergraduate. In graduate school, I was fortunate to work with professors who let me pursue a variety of interests while providing encouragement and guidance.

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caress copy.jpg (14923 bytes)

Dave Caress
MBARI Senior Research Specialist

What is your role on this cruise?
I will participate in Leg 3, led by Dr. Charlie Paull and Dr. Gary Greene. I will be particularly interested in ROV dives in submarine canyons on the north sides of Hawaii, Molokai, and Oahu.

What are your primary goals?
We are interested in the formation of large basins or holes within submarine canyon systems. Multibeam sonar bathymetric mapping of submarine canyons has revealed that basins occur within submarine canyon channels around the world. In some cases, these intra-canyon basins may be 2-5 km across and up to 400 m deep. There are several plausible processes that might create these basins, including expulsion of fluids or gases from sediments, dissolution of carbonate rocks, slumping, and active scouring by turbidity currents within the canyon. The submarine canyons formed on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands include several clear basins, some of which seem very likely to have resulted from active scouring. We will use the ROV to inspect and sample some of these canyons and basins. We hope to begin to learn how to recognize basins formed by scouring or by other processes, so that we can ultimately use ROV inspection to determine how intra-canyon basins form in more ambiguous settings.

What do you expect to find?
I don't know. Submarine canyons are a new subject for me, and the use of ROVs for this sort of field work is also new to me. This cruise will be exciting!

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
Most favorite - finding something really new or unexpected. Least favorite - being seasick. 

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one? 
I wanted to always be working on new problems. I always wanted to be a scientist, even before I knew what it meant. My undergraduate degree was in Physics, which is basic to many fields of science. As an undergraduate, I tried reading scientific journals in the library. I found the Geophysics journals both understandable and interesting. As a junior, I applied for summer internships at several institutions. I wound up spending the summer at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University working on bathymetry and heat flow in small ocean basins. Liking the subject, I wound up applying to graduate schools to study Marine Geophysics. I went to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography rather than to Lamont, but five years later I went back to Lamont for my first real job.

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Judith Connor
MBARI Director - Information Technology and Dissemination Division
http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn

What is your role on this cruise?
As a biologist on a geology leg of the Hawaii cruise, I will identify deep sea animals we see on video from the ROV and provide support to the other scientists. 

What are your primary goals?
I expect I'll help sort and store mud, rocks and invertebrates that might be collected from the depths.

What do you expect to find?
We will be extending our "knowledge base" (the encyclopedia of species and geologic features seen on video from the ROV). Hawaii will undoubted add many new species of deep water animals unfamiliar to us from our years of work in Monterey Bay. I look forward to learning more geology while working with Charlie Paull, Bill Ussler and Gary Greene.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
My favorite part is the discovery of new animals, as well as just going to sea, the feel of the ship beneath your feet and being out of sight of land. My least favorite part is being away from my family and not getting as much exercise as I would at home.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I saw the excitement in researchers I worked with at the Smithsonian Institution, then I caught the "bug" myself. The combination of mental and physical activity made me feel truly alive and excited to get to work every day. After college, I worked as a research technician on a Smithsonian research cruise that took me to the Caribbean for three years. At the end of the cruise, I wanted to plan and carry out my own research ideas and interests. Going to graduate school was exhilarating: all one's time devoted to the goal and being surrounded by smart colleagues who challenge and question to make the ideas stronger and the research more elegant. 


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Jenny Paduan
MBARI Senior Research Technician
http://www.mbari.org/staff/paje

What is your role on this cruise?
I will be assisting with collecting rock and sediment samples with the ROV and over-the-side gear, annotating the video, maintaining the gear, subsampling the samples for analyses, and safely shipping everything home. 

What are your primary goals?
That everything works, that we have everything we will need (kilometers from a hardware store!), and that we get great samples everywhere we look!

What do you expect to find?
LAVA! ...shards of lava glass, pillows and flows of lava, ancient lava, and maybe even some fresh lava (though I don't want to get too close if we should be lucky enough to be the first to see an eruption underwater)!

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
Favorite: the excitement of new discoveries
Least favorite: being seasick

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I have always loved science: What are the plants around me, the animals, rocks, landforms, the stars? What are they made of? How did they get to be the way they are? What makes them function and persist? How are we impacting them? I love the interdisciplinary nature of Oceanography: to understand the ecology of an animal, you must also understand the chemistry, physics, and geology of its habitat. When I was young, I wanted to study volcanoes, then to become an astronomer, then a veterinarian. I was a biochemistry major at a liberal arts college, and went to graduate school to study marine biochemical ecology. Fortunately, along the way I took several geology courses, because my path has taken me full circle back to studying volcanoes!

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Charlie Paull
MBARI Marine Geologist
http://www.mbari.org/staff/paull

What is your role on this cruise?
I will be the Chief Scientist on one of the legs of this cruise. 

What are your primary goals?
To learn whether there is a substantial amount of water that is discharging to the seafloor through the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands. Fresh water associated with the terrestrial aquifers may be flowing down hill and offshore from the high rainy mountains. Also, cold seawater may be entering the flanks of the islands at depth, become heated and rise within the rock to discharge at shallower depths. Both of these process with effect that diagenetic history of the rocks and cause chemical changes in the adjacent seawater.

What do you expect to find?
Chemical and isotopic shifts in the seafloor rocks and fluids.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
Seeing the seafloor through the ROV's cameras. 

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
Long term interest in the oceans. How did you become one? 24 years of school, college, graduate education, and post-doc experience.

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greene copy.jpg (16133 bytes) Gary Greene
MBARI Geologist

What is your role on this cruise?
I will be the Chief Scientist and geologist on the cruise.

What are your primary goals?
To investigate submarine canyons. We will attempt to determine the origin of the canyons and processes at work today that are shaping the canyons. The information we collect during this cruise will be used to compare and contrast with other submarine canyons around the world.

What do you expect to find?
We think we may find that freshwater outflow or spring sapping is responsible for the origin of the canyons. Hawaii is an ideal place to look for this type of fluid process as it has tropical rainfall, very porous rocks that can act as conduits for groundwater, and has high mountains that support artesian flow.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
My favorite part of a research cruise is the exploration. Discovering new things and proving (or disproving) hypotheses is very exciting. My least favorite part is ending the cruise.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
Being a marine scientist is very much like being a detective. It requires astute observations and the ability to put pieces of a puzzle together. To me, this is fun and I became a marine geologist because the work is fun. I started along this career path when I took a class in geology at a community college and discovered that I really liked the subject. My suggestion for those that would like to follow in my footsteps is to develop a good general basic understanding of the sciences, all sciences, and to develop skills in physics, math, and writing.

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nm_onboard_OA.jpg (55792 bytes) Norm Maher
MBARI Research Technician

What is your role on this cruise?
My main role on this cruise will be to operate navigation software during dive operations. We use ArcView GIS software with a specially designed extension called ArcNav to track the ship and ROV while traversing across the seafloor. This setup allows us to view the vehicles position in relation to all of our previously collected base map data for the area. We also use this setup to plan dive tracks, measure range and bearing to objects of interest, and to plot post-dive maps. Besides operating the navigation software, I will help out wherever needed in the lab, processing rock samples when they come aboard, and working on deck with the gravity core or Hydrocast. 

What are your primary goals?
My primary goals are to keep the software running smoothly, fix any problems that arise, and to help with dive track planning if weather forces us to come up with alternate plans.

What do you expect to find?
Since I've never worked in this area I don't have too many expectations other than to see things that I've never seen before. We will be diving mostly in canyon heads on the windward sides of several of the islands, so we may see fresh water discharge in some of the canyon heads, which we believe is partly responsible for the formation of the canyons. I do expect to see some spectacular vertical rock walls on the steeper canyon sides.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
The first several days of a cruise are usually the most exciting and full of anticipation, and I enjoy that very much. My least favorite part is the lack of a good nights sleep.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I guess I've always had a tendency to be interested in the natural world around me. My father was probably a strong influence, taking us kids camping and hiking at every opportunity. I hadn't planned on a science career, though, until I took a geology class as a general education requirement (I was going to be an engineer). I realized right away that this is what I loved and decided to pursue it further. Don't worry about how long the road ahead is, just go for it.

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moore copy.jpg (21131 bytes) Billy Moore
University of South Carolina
http://www.geol.sc.edu/billy.htm

What is your role on this cruise?
I will measure radon and radium isotopes in water samples as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge.

What are your primary goals?
To quantify the fluxes of groundwater and associated nutrients into the ocean.

What do you expect to find?
Groundwater is usually enriched in radon and radium isotopes as well as nutrients. At sites where the groundwater enters the ocean we expect to measure high concentrations of these tracers.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
Favorite: getting good data; least favorite: equipment failure

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
When I was 14 most of the fish in my tropical fish tank died. I traced the problem to the pH of the water and adjusted it using advice and reagents from the pet store. At this point I realized that understanding pH was an important aspect of having tropical fish, so I began a quest to understand this strange word. In fact this quest became more interesting to me than raising tropical fish. Two years later I worked as a chemical assistant at a marine lab and decided that taking chemistry to sea was fun and exciting.

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Bill Ussler
MBARI Senior Research Specialist
http://www.mbari.org/staff/methane

What is your role on this cruise?
My primary responsibility is the operation of our portable chemistry lab van. This 16 foot long custom-built container contains a complete analytical laboratory for the analysis of the fluids and gases contained in marine sediments. There are 3 gas chromatographs configured to analyze methane and the low-molecular hydrocarbon gases ethane, propane, butane, and pentane, dissolved carbon dioxide, and dissolved hydrogen sulfide. Two ion chromatographs comprise a system to analyze dissolved cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and ammonium) and anions (chloride and sulfate) in sea water and waters extracted from sediment cores. I will also assist in the collection and analysis of water samples for the concentration of radium and radon isotopes.

What are your primary goals?
My main focus on this expedition is determining the chemistry of fluids and gases contained in surface sediments and ocean waters around the flanks of the Hawaiian islands. 

What do you expect to find?
It is very likely that the fresh water aquifers contained within the volcanic edifices that comprise the Hawaiian Islands have discharge points off-shore. The chemistry of meteoric waters discharging into the ocean should have a chemical signature that is easily distinguished from sea water. Dr. Billy Moore, who is accompanying us on this expedition, has developed a method for using radium isotopic measurements to identify water that has percolated through rock before entry into the oceans. He will be assisting us in the application of this technique to water samples we will collect using the Tiburon ROV.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
My favorite part of any research cruise is the discovery of new and interesting facts about the ocean. My least favorite parts are finalizing all the important details necessary for packing the equipment and supplies; and feeling seasick while at sea.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I have had a long-standing interest since childhood in science, especially chemistry and geology. Becoming a scientist requires persistence, adaptability, inquisitiveness, and a willingness to learn and do many, often mundane, tasks. Tenacity combined with many years of formal education has allowed me to pursue a rewarding career in the Earth Sciences. I have two suggestions for future ocean scientists: 1. obtain an undergraduate degree in one of the core sciences (chemistry, physics, or biology) in preparation for graduate work in the marine sciences; and 2. develop technical and engineering skills that can be applied to the development of new techniques and instrumentation. 

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jgm copy.jpg (16679 bytes) James Moore
U.S. Geological Survey Geologist, Volcanic Hazards Team

What is your role on this cruise?
I am a volcanologist and petrologist and will work with other geologists in the video observations and sampling of geologic specimens from the sea floor. We will collect both submarine lava samples and coral samples, and from analyses of these materials will work toward unraveling the chronology, structure, and chemical evolution of the volcanoes.

What are your primary goals?
To learn more about the subaqueous processes that built these giant volcanoes and are currently degrading and modifying them.

What do you expect to find?
We have a supposition of the types of rocks and structures that occur in various places on the flanks of the volcanoes, as based on past work and current models of volcano formation. However, what invariably happens is that quite unexpected features are discovered, and commonly the research program need be redirected at sea and (in the laboratory) to accommodate these discoveries. From the sum of the evidence gleaned from the research existing ideas and models are often modified to more closely approximate reality.

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
The fascination about this cruise (as well as other types of research) is the thrill of exploring the unknown, and "setting your feet (or robotic eyes and hands) where no one has gone before". Here the unknown is easily defined because we know where other ships have gone and the equipment at their disposal. Other favorites are the opportunity to associate with new people with a different outlook on life, and to change the pattern of everyday existence. I enjoy experiencing the weather which pervades life at sea more powerfully than on shore. After a research cruise, I return to the office with recharged batteries. Usually on the first day out, mal de mer lurks in the background, but mercifully seems to disappear in time.

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I have been drawn to the out-of-doors all my life—beginning early with family camping trips, Boy Scout activities, and high school Sierra skiing and hiking trips. This naturally led to a geology major at Stanford and a career with the U S Geological Survey. I was assigned to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in mid-career, and there developed a curiosity about the great bulk of the Hawaiian volcanoes that lies beneath the sea. Twenty oceanographic cruises later this curiosity is unabated and I am fortunate to participate in the MBARI cruise. I was lucky and knew early in my life that I wanted to be a scientist. With that desire, and a constant emotional and academic push in that direction, things took a natural course.

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D.J. Osborn
MBARI Instrumentation Technician

What is your role on this cruise?
My role during the Hawaii Expedition involves running, integrating and maintaining the sensors we use to measure the ocean's physical properties. My primary instrument is called the CTD - which stands for conductivity, temperature and depth. The conductivity measurement can be converted to salinity; we also measure transmissivity, fluorometry, dissolved oxygen, light and other bio-optical water properties. The CTD is lowered through the ocean with a large winch and a structure on the ship much like a crane. This particular CTD can go 6800 meters deep which is equivalent to about 4 miles. The CTD also has the ability to capture water at different depths. The device that does this is called a Rosette Water Sampler. We have twelve different bottles on the CTD that hold 10 liters of water each or about 2.5 gallons. We can close the bottles at the depths we like and bring water to the surface so the scientists can do further analysis. I run the instrument, process the data, and ensure that all the systems are working properly and accurately. 

What are your primary goals?
My primary goal is to ensure that the instrument is ran in a safe manner and that all persons around the heavy equipment and high voltages are kept safe and sound. The ships crew helps me with keeping everyone safe. My next most important role is to make sure the equipment is kept safe and is only deployed when conditions are safe and the sea is not too stormy or rough. And finally my goal is to make sure all the instruments perform as expected - with a high level of accuracy and efficiency without any complications or problems. 

What do you expect to find?
I expect to find much warmer water as we get closer to Hawaii and that could effect some of the instruments in some unforeseen way. These instruments have never been in water this warm and they could behave in unexpected ways - everything should be ok, but you never know. Also, I expect some of the instruments mounted in the hull of the ship could also have a small potential to work different in very warm water. 

What is your favorite/least favorite part of a research cruise?
My favorite part is working outside on the boat in the open sea in the fresh air and making all the equipment work as if it looks easy. I also like the challenges of working through difficult problems with limited resources while at sea and there are usually many opportunities for this. My favorite part of a research cruise is when the scientists find something totally new or different than expected. 

Why did you decide to become a scientist/engineer/etc? How did you become one?
I decided to become an engineer because even as a young child I was always fascinated by how and why things worked. I was constantly taking things apart, trying to figure out how they worked and then I'd put them back together... at least most of the time I did. Engineering seemed to follow the natural course of my interests. 


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