### MB-System Unix Manual Page

```mblevitus
Section:  MB-System 5.0  (1)Updated:  26 October 2009 Index

NAME

mbabsorption - calculates the absorption of sound in sea water in dB/km
as a function of frequency, temperature, salinity, sound speed, and depth.

VERSION

Version 5.0

SYNOPSIS

mbabsorption [-Csoundspeed -Ddepth
-Ffrequency -Pph -Ssalinity -Ttemperature -V -H]

DESCRIPTION

mbabsorption - calculates the absorption of sound in sea water in dB/km
as a function of frequency (kHz), temperature (degrees C), salinity (per mil),
depth (m), pH, and water sound speed (m/sec).

We use the Francois and Garrison equations from:
Francois, R.E., Garrison, G.R., "Sound absorption based
on ocean measurements: Part I: Pure water and magnesium
sulfate contributions", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 72(3),
896-907, 1982.
Francois, R.E., Garrison, G.R., "Sound absorption based
on ocean measurements: Part II: Boric acid contribution
and equation for total absorption", J. Acoust. Soc. Am.,
72(6), 1879-1890, 1982.

Francois and Garrison [1982] model the sound absorption in
sea water as resulting from contributions from pure water,
magnesium sulfate, and boric acid. The boric acid contribution
is significant below 10 kHz. The equations are:

absorption = Boric Acid Contribution
+ MbSO4 Contribution
+ Pure Water Contribution

Boric Acid Contribution:
AlphaB = Ab * Pb * Fb * f**2
-------------------
f**2 + Fb**2

Ab = 8.86 / c * 10**(0.78 * pH - 5) (dB/km/kHz)
Pb = 1
Fb = 2.8 * (S / 35)**0.5 * 10**(4 - 1245 / Tk) (kHz)

MgSO4 Contribution:
AlphaM = Am * Pm * Fm * f**2
-------------------
f**2 + Fm**2

Am = 21.44 * S * (1 + 0.025 * T) / c (dB/km/kHZ)
Pm = 1 - 0.000137 * D + 0.0000000062 * D**2
Fm = (8.17 * 10**(8 - 1990 / Tk)) / (1 + 0.0018 * (S - 35))  (kHz)

Pure Water Contribution:
AlphaW = Aw * Pw * f**2

For T <= 20 deg C
Aw = 0.0004397 - 0.0000259 * T
+ 0.000000911 * T**2 - 0.000000015 * T**3 (dB/km/kHz)
For T > 20 deg C
Aw = 0.0003964 - 0.00001146 * T
+ 0.000000145 * T**2 - 0.00000000049 * T**3 (dB/km/kHz)
Pw = 1 - 0.0000383 * D + 0.00000000049 * D**2

Parameters:
f = sound frequency (kHz)
c = speed of sound (m/s)
T = temperature (deg C)
Tk = temperature (deg K) = T + 273 (deg K)
S = salinity (per mil)
D = depth (m)

If the speed of sound is not specified by the user, it will be
calculated from temperature, salinity, and depth using:

c =~ 1412 + 3.21 * T + 1.19 * S + 0.0167 * D

Normally, mbabsorption simply prints the resulting absorption
value to stdout. If the -V option is specified, the output will
include a listing of the parameters used in calculating the absorption.

AUTHORSHIP

David W. Caress (caress@mbari.org)

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Dale N. Chayes (dale@ldeo.columbia.edu)

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

OPTIONS

-H

This "help" flag cause the program to print out a description
of its operation and then exit immediately.
-C

soundspeed

Specifies the water sound speed in m/sec. If the option is
not used, the water sound speed will be calculated from the
temperature, salinity, and depth.
-D

depth

Sets the depth in meters at which the sound absorption should be calculated.
Default: depth = 0.0 m (i.e. the sea surface).
-F

frequency

Sets the sound frequency in kHz at which the sound absorption should be calculated.
Default: frequency = 200 kHz.
-P

ph

Sets the pH value at which the sound absorption should be calculated.
Default: ph = 8.
-S

salinity

Sets the salinity in per mil at which the sound absorption should be calculated.
Default: salinity = 35 per mil.
-T

temperature

Sets the temperature in degrees C at which the sound absorption should be calculated.
Default: temperature = 10.0 degrees C.
-V

Normally, mbabsorption outputs only a single absorption value
to the stdout stream.  If the
-V flag is given, then mbabsorption works in a "verbose" mode and
also outputs the parameters used to calculate the absorption.

EXAMPLES

Suppose that one wishes to obtain the water sound absorption for
a 200 kHz multibeam sonar operating at a depth of 1000 meters (on
an AUV, for instance) in water with a salinity of 35 per mil, a pH
of 8, and a temperature of 4 degrees C. The following will suffice:

mbabsorption -D1000 -F200 -P8 -S35 -T4

The output will be:
37.692561

In order to obtain a more readable result, use the -V option:

mbabsorption -D1000 -F200 -P8 -S35 -T4 -V

The output will be:

Program MBabsorption
Version \$Id: mbabsorption.1 1783 2009-10-26 23:33:35Z caress \$
MB-system Version 5.1.1beta15

Input Parameters:
Frequency:        200.000000 kHz
Temperature:      4.000000 deg C
Salinity:         35.000000 per mil
Depth:            1000.000000 m
pH:               8.000000
Result:
Sound absorption: 37.692561 dB/km

mbsystem(l)

BUGS

None known.

Index

NAME
VERSION
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHORSHIP
OPTIONS
EXAMPLES