Brewer lab publications

2017

Shepard, J.G., Brewer, P.G., Oschlies, A., Watson, A.J. (2017). Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world: introduction and overview. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 20170240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2017.0240.

Brewer, P.G., Peltzer, E.T., Walz, P.M., Wojciechowicz, M. (2017) The speciation of water in sea water and in gelatinous marine animals. Marine Chemistry. In press.

Brewer, P.G., Peltzer, E.T. (2017) Depth Perception: The Need to Report Ocean Biogeochemical Rates as Functions of Temperature, not Depth. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. In press.

2016

Peltzer, E.T., X. Zhang, P.M. Walz, M. Luna, and P.G. Brewer (2016). In situ Raman measurement of HS and H2S in sediment pore waters and use of the HS:H2S ratio as an indicator of pore water pH. Marine Chemistry, 184: 32-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2016.05.006

Gwiazda, R., C.K. Paull, D.W. Caress, T. Lorenson, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, K. Anderson, and E.M. Lundsten (2016). Eel Canyon slump scar and associated fluid venting. In: Submarine mass movements and their consequences, 7th International Symposium, edited by G. Lamarche, J. Mountjoy, S. Bull, T. Hubble, S. Krastel, E. Lane, A. Micallef, L. Moscardelli, C. Mueller, I. Pecher, and S. Woelz. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 411-418.

Brewer, P.G. and E.T. Peltzer (2016). Ocean chemistry, ocean warming, and emerging hypoxia: Commentary. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 121: 3659-3667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016jc011651

2015

Kirkwood, W.J., P.M. Walz, E.T. Peltzer, J.P. Barry, R.A. Herlien, K.L. Headley, C. Kecy, G.I. Matsumoto, T. Maughan, T.C. O’Reilly, K.A. Salamy, F. Shane, and P.G. Brewer (2015). Design, construction, and operation of an actively controlled deep-sea CO2 enrichment experiment using a cabled observatory system. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 97: 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2014.11.005

Gehlen, M., R. Séférian, D.O.B. Jones, T. Roy, R. Roth, J. Barry, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, J.P. Dunne, C. Heinze, F. Joos, J.C. Orr, L. Resplandy, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra (2015). Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk. Biogeosciences, 11: 6955-6967. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-6955-2014

Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, J. Ryan, W.J. Kirkwood, and A.F. Hofmann (2015). Ocean chemistry and the speed of sound in seawater. Marine Chemistry, 177: 591-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2015.09.009

2014

Walz, P., E.T. Peltzer, R. Gwiazda, K. Anderson, C.K. Paull, and P.G. Brewer (2014). In situ and laboratory Raman observations of an oil associated gas hydrate in the Eel River Basin. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Beijing, China, 6 pp.

Sutton, A.J., R.A. Feely, C.L. Sabine, M.J. McPhaden, T. Takahashi, F.P. Chavez, G.E. Friederich, and J.T. Mathis (2014). Natural variability and anthropogenic change in equatorial Pacific surface ocean pCO2 and pH. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28: 131-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004679

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., R. Cai, E.S. Poloczanska, P.G. Brewer, S. Sundby, K. Hilmi, V.J. Fabry, and S. Jung (2014). The Ocean. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: pp. 1655-1731.

Herguera, J.C., C.K. Paull, E. Perez, W. Ussler III, and E. Peltzer (2014). Limits to the sensitivity of living benthic foraminifera to pore water carbon isotope anomalies in methane vent environments. Paleoceanography, 29: 273-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013PA002457

Gattuso, J.-P., W. Kirkwood, J.P. Barry, E. Cox, F. Gazeau, L. Hansson, I. Hendricks, D.I. Kline, P. Mahacek, S. Martin, P. McElhany, E.T. Peltzer, J. Reeve, D. Roberts, V. Saderne, K. Tait, S. Widdicombe, and P.G. Brewer (2014). Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems: Present status and future developments. Biogeosciences, 11: 4057-4075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-4057-2014

Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, E.K. Coward, L.A. Stern, S.H. Kirby, and J. Pinkston (2014). Deep-sea field test of the CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate spontaneous conversion hypothesis. Energy and Fuels, 28: 7061-7069. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef501430h

Brewer, P.G., A.F. Hofmann, E.T. Peltzer, and W. Ussler III (2014). Evaluating microbial chemical choices: The ocean chemistry basis for the competition between use of O2 or NO3 as an electron acceptor. Deep Sea Research I, 87: 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2014.02.002

Brewer, P.G. and A.F. Hofmann (2014). A plea for temperature in descriptions of the oceanic oxygen status. Oceanography, 27: 160-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.19

Brewer, P.G. (2014). Marine biogeochemistry: Arctic shelf methane sounds alarm. Nature Geoscience, 7: 6-7. http://dx.doi.org/10:1038/ngeo2051

Barry, J.P., C. Lovera, K.R. Buck, E.T. Peltzer, J.R. Taylor, P. Walz, P.J. Whaling, and P.G. Brewer (2014). Use of a Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) system to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of deep-sea urchin. Environmental Science & Technology, 48: 9890-9897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es501603r

2013

Shane, F.F., K. Headley, P. Walz, C. Kecy, G.I. Matsumoto, R.A. Herlien, E.T. Peltzer, J. Scholfield, K.A. Salamy, T. Maughan, T.C. O’Reilly, C. Lovera, W.J. Kirkwood, J. Barry, and P.G. Brewer (2013). xFOCE: An open source, multi-disciplinary resource for in-situ ocean acidification research. In: Proceedings of Marine Technology Society/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans 2013, San Diego, California, 6 pp.

Kirkwood, W.J., E. Peltzer, P. Walz, K. Headley, C. Kecy, F. Shane, J. Scholfield, T. O’Reilly, T. Maughan, K. Salamy, and P.G. Brewer (2013). xFOCE: An open source technology consortium for ocean acidification research. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers International Underwater Technology Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 4-9 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/UT.2013.6519808

Kecy, C.D., E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, K. Headley, R.A. Herlien, T. Maughan, G.I. Matsumoto, T.C. O’Reilly, K.A. Salamy, F. Shane, C. Lovera, J. Scholfield, W. Kirkwood, J.P. Barry, and P.G. Brewer (2013). Open source instrumentation nodes for the greater oceanographic community. In: Proceedings of Marine Technology Society/Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans 2013, San Diego, California, 7 pp.

Hofmann, A.F., P.M. Walz, H. Thomas, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2013). High-resolution topography-following chemical mapping of ocean hypoxia by use of an autonomous underwater vehicle: The Santa Monica Basin example. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30: 2630-2646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00249.1

Hofmann, A.F., E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2013). Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 2: Carbon dioxide. Biogeosciences, 10: 2409-2425. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-2409-2013

Hofmann, A.F., E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2013). Kinetic bottlenecks to respiratory exchange rates in the deep-sea – Part 1: Oxygen. Biogeosciences, 10: 5049-5060. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-5049-2013

Brewer, P.G. and W.J. Kirkwood (2013). Raman spectroscopy for subsea applications. In: Subsea Optics and Imaging, edited by J. W. a. O. Zielinski. Woodhead Publishing Limited, pp.

Brewer, P.G. (2013). A different ocean acidification hazard—The Kolumbo submarine volcano example. Geology, 41: 1039-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/focus092013.1

Brewer, P.G. (2013). A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist’s view. Biogeosciences Discussions, 10: 8715-8748.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, P.G. Brewer, B.A. Seibel, J.C. Drazen, M.N. Tamburri, P.J. Whaling, L. Kuhnz, and E.F. Pane (2013). The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration. Deep Sea Research II, 92: 249-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.03.037

2012

Zhang, X., W.J. Kirkwood, P.M. Walz, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2012). A review of advances in deep-ocean Raman spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 66: 237-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/11-06539

Kline, D.I., L. Teneva, K. Schneider, T. Miard, A. Chai, M. Marker, K. Headley, B. Opdyke, M. Nash, M. Valetich, J.K. Caves, B.D. Russell, S.D. Connell, W.J. Kirkwood, P. Brewer, E. Peltzer, J. Silverman, K. Caldeira, R.B. Dunbar, J.R. Koseff, S.G. Monismith, B.G. Mitchel, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg (2012). A short-term in situ CO2 enrichment experiment on Heron Island (GBR). Scientific Reports, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep00413

Klapp, S.A., F. Enzmann, P. Walz, T. Huthwelker, J. Tuckermann, J.-O. Schwarz, T. Pape, E.T. Peltzer, R. Mokso, D. Wangner, F. Marone, M. Kersten, G. Bohrmann, W.F. Kuhs, M. Stampanoni, and P.G. Brewer (2012). Microstructure characteristics during hydrate formation and dissociation revealed by X-ray tomographic microscopy. Geo-Marine Letters, 32: 555-562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00367-012-0276-0

Gilly, W.F., J.M. Beman, S.Y. Litvin, and B.H. Robison (2012). Oceanographic and biological effects of shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. Annual Review of Marine Science, 5: 393-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120710-100849

Brewer, P.G. (2012). Book Review: “Ocean Acidification” Edited by J.-P. Gattuso and L. Hansson, Oxford University Press. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, 21: 14-16.

2011

Zhang, X., W.J. Kirkwood, K.C. Hester, P.M. Walz, W. Ussler III, E.T. Peltzer, F. Shane, and P. Brewer (2011). In situ Raman probe for quantitative observation of sediment pore waters in the deep ocean — development and applications. In: OCEANS 2011, Santander, Spain, 8.

Zhang, X., K.C. Hester, W. Ussler III, P.M. Walz, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2011). In situ Raman-based measurements of high dissolved methane concentrations in hydrate-rich ocean sediments. Geophysical Research Letters, 38: L08605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047141

Hofmann, A.F., E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2011). Hypoxia by degrees: Establishing definitions for a changing ocean. Deep-Sea Research I, 58: 1212-1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2011.09.004

Hill, T.M., C.K. Paull, and R.B. Critser (2011). Glacial and deglacial seafloor methane emissions from pockmarks on the northern flank of the Storegga Slide complex. Geo-Marine Letters, 32: 73-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00367-011-0258-7

Gray, S.E.C., M.D. DeGrandpre, T.S. Moore, T.R. Martz, G.E. Friederich, and K.S. Johnson (2011). Applications of in situ pH measurements for inorganic carbon calculations. Marine Chemistry, 125: 82-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2011.02.005

2010

Zhang, X., P.M. Walz, W.J. Kirkwood, K.C. Hester, W. Ussler III, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2010). Development and deployment of a deep-sea Raman probe for measurement of pore-water geochemistry Deep-Sea Research Part I, 57: 297-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.11.004

Marker, M., D. Kline, W. Kirkwood, K. Headley, P. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, T. Miard, A. Chai, M. James, K. Schneider, J. Silverman, K. Caldeira, S. Monosmith, B. Opdyke, R. Dunbar, R. White, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg (2010). The Coral Proto Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment system (CP-FOCE): Engineering and development. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans Conference, Sydney, Australia.

Klapp, S.A., M.M. Murshed, T. Pape, H. Klein, G. Bohrmann, P. Brewer, and W.F. Kuhs (2010). Mixed gas hydrate structures at the Chapopote Asphalt Volcano, southern Gulf of Mexico. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 299: 207-217.

Ilyina, T., R.E. Zeebe, and P. Brewer (2010). Predicting an ocean increasingly transparent to sound at marine mammal frequencies. Nature Geoscience, 3: 18-22.

Council, N.R. (2010). Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to support international climate agreements. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 132 pp.

2009

Zhang, X., K.C. Hester, O. Mancillas, E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2009). Geochemistry of chemical weapon breakdown products on the seafloor: 1,4-Thioxane in sea water. Environmental Science & Technology, 43: 610-615.

Rehder, G., I. Leifer, P. Brewer, G.E. Friederich, and E.T. Peltzer (2009). Controls on methane bubble dissolution inside and outside the hydrate stability field from open field experiments and numerical modeling. Marine Chemistry, 114: 19-30.

Kirkwood, W., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P. Brewer (2009). Cabled observatory technology for ocean acidification research. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/Oceans Engineering Society, Bremen, Germany.

Kirkwood, W., E.T. Peltzer, J. Barry, and P. Brewer (2009). Recent advances in FOCE technology: Building a better sea floor CO2 enrichment experiment. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Pacific Science Inter-Congress of the Pacific Science Association, Papeete, Tahiti.

Hester, K.C., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, R.M. Dunk, E.D. Sloan, and P. Brewer (2009). A natural hydrate dissolution experiment on complex multi-component hydrates on the sea floor. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73: 6747-6756.

Hester, K.C. and P.G. Brewer (2009). Clathrate hydrates in nature. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1: 303-327.

2008

Walz, P.M., W.J. Kirkwood, E.T. Peltzer, K.C. Hester, and P.G. Brewer (2008). Creating controlled CO2 perturbation experiments on the seafloor — Development of FOCE techniques. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Kobe Techno Meeting, Kobe, Japan.

Peltzer, E.T. and P.G. Brewer (2008). Beyond pH and temperature: Thermodynamic constraints imposed by global warming and ocean acidification on midwater respiration by marine animals. In: Proceedings of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Science Conference, Halifax, Canada.

Kessler, J.D., W.S. Reeburgh, D.L. Valentine, F.S. Kinnaman, E.T. Peltzer, P.G. Brewer, J. Southon, and S.C. Tyler (2008). A survey of methane isotope abundance (14C, 13C, 2H) from five nearshore marine basins that reveals unusual radiocarbon levels in subsurface waters. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004822

Hester, K.C., E.T. Peltzer, W. Kirkwood, and P.G. Brewer (2008). Unanticipated consequences of ocean acidification: A noisier ocean at lower pH. Geophysical Research Letters, 35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034913

Brewer, P.G. and N. Nakayama (2008). What lies beneath: A plea for complete information. Environmental Science and Technology, 42: 1394-1399.

Brewer, P.G. and J.P. Barry (2008). The other CO2 problem. Scientific American: Special Edition Earth 3.0: 22-23.

2007

Tsouris, C., P. Szymcek, P. Taboada-Serrano, S.D. McCallum, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, E. Adams, A. Chow, W.K. Johnson, and J. Summers (2007). Scaled-up ocean injection of CO2-hydrate composite particles. Energy and Fuels, 21: 3300-3309.

Thistle, D., L. Sedlacek, K.R. Carman, J.W. Fleeger, P.G. Brewer, and J.P. Barry (2007). Exposure to carbon dioxide-rich seawater is stressful for deep-sea species: An in-situ, behavioral study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 340: 9-16.

Paull, C.K., W. Ussler III, E.T. Peltzer, P.G. Brewer, R. Keaten, P. Mitts, J. Nealon, J. Greinert, J.C. Herguera, and E. Perez (2007). Authigenic carbon entombed in methane-soaked sediments from the northeastern transform margin of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 54: 1240-1267.

Hester, K.C., R.M. Dunk, S.N. White, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, and E.D. Sloan (2007). Gas hydrate measurements at Hydrate Ridge using Raman spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 2947-2959.

Hester, K.C., R.M. Dunk, P. Walz, E.T. Peltzer, E.D. Sloan, and P.G. Brewer (2007). Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: Pathways to growth. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 261: 396-406.

Caldeira, K., D. Archer, J.P. Barry, R. Bellerby, P.G. Brewer, L. Cao, A.G. Dickson, S.C. Doney, H. Elderfield, V. Fabry, R.A. Freely, J.P. Gattuso, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, P.M. Haugan, J.A. Kleypas, C. Langdon, J.C. Orr, A. Ridgwell, C.L. Sabine, B.A. Seibel, C. Turley, A. Watson, and R. Zeebe (2007). Comment on “Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity”. Geophysical Research Letters, 34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027288

Brewer, P.G. (2007). Evaluating a technological fix for climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104: 9915-9916.

2006

White, S.N., R.M. Dunk, E.T. Peltzer, J.J. Freeman, and P.G. Brewer (2006). In situ Raman analyses of deep-sea hydrothermal and cold seep systems (Gorda Ridge & Hydrate Ridge). Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GC001204

White, S.N., P.G. Brewer, and E.T. Peltzer (2006). Determination of gas bubble fractionation rates in the deep ocean by laser Raman spectroscopy. Marine Chemistry, 99: 12-23.

Thistle, D., L. Sedlacek, K.R. Carman, J.W. Fleeger, P.G. Brewer, and J. Barry (2006). Simulated sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide at a deep-sea site: Effects on harpacticoid-copepod species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 330: 141-158.

Sherman, A.D., E.T. Peltzer, W. Kirkwood, R.M. Dunk, P. Walz, J. Scholfield, C. Everlove, and P.G. Brewer (2006). Lessons learned while optimizing instrument sensitivity for deep ocean raman spectroscopy. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans Conference, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hester, K.C., S.N. White, E.T. Peltzer, P.G. Brewer, and E.D. Sloan (2006). Raman spectroscopic measurements of synthetic gas hydrates in the ocean. Marine Chemistry, 98: 304-314.

Brewer, P.G., B. Chen, R. Warzinski, A. Baggeroer, E.T. Peltzer, R.M. Dunk, and P. Walz (2006). Three-dimensional acoustic monitoring and modeling of a deep-sea CO2 droplet cloud. Geophysical Research Letters, 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027181

Alendal, G., P. Haugan, R. Gangsto, K. Caldeira, E. Adams, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, G. Rehder, and T. Sato (2006). Comment on “Fate of Rising CO2 Droplets in Seawater”. Environmental Science and Technology, 40: 3653-3654.

2005

Thistle, D., K.R. Carman, L. Sedlacek, P.G. Brewer, J.W. Fleeger, and J.P. Barry (2005). Deep-ocean experimental tests of the sensitivity of sediment-dwelling animals to imposed CO2 gradients. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 289: 1-4.

Riestenberg, D., C. Tsouris, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, A. Chow, and E. Adams (2005). Field studies on the formation of sinking CO2 particles for ocean carbon sequestration: Effects of injector geometry on particle density and dissolution rate and model simulation of plume behavior. Environmental Science Technology, 39: 7287-7293.

Paull, C.K., W. Ussler III, E.T. Peltzer, P.G. Brewer, R. Keaten, P. Mitts, J.C. Herguera, E. Perez, J. Nealon, T.H. Naehr, J. Greinert, and J.A. Barron (2005). Carbon signatures entombed in methane-soaked hydrate-bearing sediments: Preliminary results. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Gas Hydrates, V.3, Exploration, Resources and Environment, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 699-708.

Nakayama, N., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2005). First results from a controlled deep-sea CO2 perturbation experiment: Evidence for rapid equilibrium of the oceanic CO2 system at depth. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002597

Kirkwood, W., D. Graves, M. Conway, D. Pargett, J. Scholfield, P. Walz, R.M. Dunk, E.T. Peltzer, J. Barry, and P.G. Brewer (2005). Engineering development of the free ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) experiment. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans Conference, Washington, D.C.

Dunk, R.M., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2005). Seeing a deep ocean CO2 enrichment experiment in a new light: Laser raman detection of dissolved CO2 in seawater. Environmental Science Technology, 39: 9630-9636.

Caldeira, K., M. Akai, P.G. Brewer, B. Chen, P. Haugan, T. Iwama, P. Johnston, H. Kheshgi, Q. Li, T. Ohsumi, H. Poertner, C. Sabine, Y. Shirayama, and J. Thomson (2005). Ocean Storage. In: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A special report of IPCC Working Group III, edited by B. Metz and O. Davidson. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge UK, pp. 279-317.

Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, I. Aya, K. Yamane, R. Kojima, Y. Nakajima, N. Nakayama, P. Haugan, and T. Johannessen (2005). Deep ocean experiments with fossil fuel carbon dioxide: Creation and sensing of a controlled plume at 4 km depth. Journal of Marine Research, 63: 9-33.

2004

White, S.N., W.J. Kirkwood, A. Sherman, M. Brown, R. Henthorn, K.A. Salamy, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2004). Laser Raman spectroscopic instrumentation for in situ geochemical analyses in the deep ocean. In:. In: Proceedings of the Marine Technology Society/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans Conference, Kobe, Japan, 95-100.

Tsouris, C., P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, D. Riestenber, L. Liang, and O.R. West (2004). Hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration: Field verification. Environmental Science & Technology, 38: 2470-2475.

Rehder, G., S.H. Kirby, W.B. Durham, L.A. Stern, E.T. Peltzer, J. Pinkston, and P.G. Brewer (2004). Dissolution rates of pure methane hydrate and carbon-dioxide hydrate in undersaturated seawater at 1000 m depth. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68: 285-292.

Peltzer, E.T., P.G. Brewer, N. Nakayama, P. Walz, I. Aya, R. Kojima, K. Yamane, Y. Nakajima, P. Haugan, J. Hove, and T. Johannessen (2004). Initial results from a 4 km ocean CO2 release experiment. In:. In: Preprints of Symposia, Division of Fuel Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 429-430.

Pasteris, J.D., B. Wopenka, J.J. Freeman, P.G. Brewer, S.N. White, E.T. Peltzer, and G. Malby (2004). Raman Spectroscopy in the deep ocean: Successes and challenges. Applied Spectroscopy, 58: 195A-208A.

Cicerone, R., J. Orr, P.G. Brewer, P. Haugan, L. Merlivat, T. Ohsumi, S. Pantoja, and H.O. Poertner (2004). The ocean in a high CO2 world. EOS, 85: 351-353.

Caldeira, K., M.G. Morgan, D. Baldocchi, P.G. Brewer, C.T. Chen, G.J. Nabuurs, N. Nakicenovic, and G.P. Robertson (2004). A portfolio of carbon management options. In:. In: Toward CO2 stabilization: Issues, strategies, and consequences, edited by C. Field and M. R. Raupach. Island Press, pp. 103-129.

Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, I. Aya, P. Haugan, R. Bellerby, K. Yamane, R. Kojima, P. Walz, and Y. Nakajima (2004). Small scale field study of an ocean CO2 plume. Journal of Oceanography, 60: 751-758.

Brewer, P.G., G. Malby, J.D. Pasteris, S.N. White, E.T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M.O. Brown (2004). Development of a laser spectrometer for deep-ocean science. Deep Sea Research 1, 51: 739-753.

Brewer, P.G. (2004). Direct injection of CO2 in the ocean. In:. In: Toward CO2 stabilization: Issues, strategies, and consequences, edited by C. Fields and M. R. Raupach. Island Press, pp. 469-478.

Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C.F. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, P.J. Whaling, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2004). Effects of direct ocean CO2 injection on deep-sea meiofauna. Journal of Oceanography, 60: 759-766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10872-004-5768-8

Aya, I., R. Kojima, K. Yamane, K. Shiozaki, P.G. Brewer, and E.T. Peltzer (2004). In situ experiments of cold CO2 release in mid-depth. Energy, 29: 1499-1509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.055

2003

Paull, C.K., P.G. Brewer, W. Ussler, III., E.T. Peltzer, G. Rehder, and D.A. Clague (2003). An experiment demonstrating that marine slumping is a mechanism to transfer methane from seafloor gas-hydrate deposits into the upper ocean and atmosphere. Geo-Marine Letters, 22: 198–203.

Kirkwood, W., S.N. White, M. Brown, R. Henthorn, S. Jensen, K.A. Salamy, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (2003). Precision underwater positioning for in situ laser raman spectrographic applications. In: MTS/IEEE Oceans Conference, San Diego, California, 838–843.

Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, G. Rehder, and R. Dunk (2003). Advances in deep-ocean CO2 sequestration experiements. In: Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, edited by J. Gale and Y. Kaya. Pergamon, pp. 1667–1670.

Brewer, P.G., Malby George, Pasteris D. Jill, White Sheri N., Peltzer T. Wopenka B., Freeman J., Brown Mark O. (2003). Development of a laser raman spectometer for deep-ocean science. Deep Sea Research 1: 739-753.

Brewer, P.G. (2003). Direct injection of carbon dioxide into the oceans. In: The Carbon Dioxide Dilemma: Promising Technologies and Policies, edited by. National Academies Press, pp. 43-51.

Brewer, P.G. (2003). Forward. In: Ocean Biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change, edited by M. J. Fasham. Springer, pp. I – VIII.

Barry, J.P., B.A. Seibel, J.C. Drazen, M.N. Tamburri, K.R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, E.T. Peltzer, K. Osborn, P.J. Whaling, P. Walz, and P.G. Brewer (2003). Deep-sea field experiments on the biological impacts of direct deep-sea CO2 injection. In: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Alexandria, Virginia, 1–7.

Aya, I., R. Kojima, K. Yamane, P.G. Brewer, and E.T. Peltzer (2003). In situ experiments of cold CO2 release in mid-depth. In: Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, edited by J. Gale and Y. Kaya. Pergamon, pp. 739-744.

2002

Rehder, G., P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, and G.E. Friederich (2002). Enhanced lifetime of methane bubble streams within the deep ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 29.

Paull, C.K., P.G. Brewer, W. Ussler, III, E.T. Peltzer, G. Rehder, and D.A. Clague (2002). Evaluation of marine slumping as a mechanism to transfer methane from seafloor gas hydrate deposits into the upper ocean and atmosphere. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Yokohama, Japan, 31–35.

Brewer, P.G., C.K. Paull, E.T. Peltzer, W. Ussler, III, G. Rehder, and G.E. Friederich (2002). Measurements of the fate of gas hydrates during transit through the ocean water column. Geophysical Research Letters, 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL014727

Brewer, P.G., J. Pasteris, G. Malby, E.T. Peltzer, S.N. White, J. Freeman, B. Wopenka, M. Brown, and D. Cline (2002). Laser raman spectroscopy used to study the ocean at 3600-m depth. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 83: 469–470.

2001

Erickson, J., P.G. Brewer, G.E. Friederich, and E.T. Peltzer (2001). Design and operation of a pressure retaining sampler for sedimentary gases and gas hydrates. In: MTS/IEEE Oceans 2001: An Ocean Odyssey, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2,396–392,399.

Brewer, P.G. and T. Moore, Ed.^Eds. (2001). Ocean sciences at the new millenium. University Corporation of Atmospheric Research, City.

2000

Peltzer, E.T. and P.G. Brewer (2000). Practical physical chemistry and empirical predictions of methane hydrate stability. In: Natural gas hydrate: In oceanic and permafrost environments, edited by M. D. Max. Kluwer Academic,Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 17-28.

Brewer, P.G. and F.M. Orr Jr. (2000). CO2: The burning issue. Chemistry & Industry: 567-571.

Brewer, P.G. (2000). Major international programs in Ocean Sciences: Ocean chemistry. In: 50 years of ocean discovery, 1950-2000, edited by N. S. Foundation. National Academy Press,Washington, D.C., pp. 152-161.

Brewer, P.G. (2000). Gas hydrates and global climate change. In: Gas hydrates: Challenges for the future, edited by G. D. Holder and P. R. Bishnoi. New York Academy of Sciences,New York, pp. 195-199.

Brewer, P.G. (2000). Chemical oceanography. In: Introduction to Earth systems: Processes and issues, edited by W. G. Ernst. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, pp. 182-193.

1999

Hinrichs, K.-U., J.M. Hayes, S.P. Sylva, P.G. Brewer, and E.F. DeLong (1999). Methane-consuming archaebacteria in marine sediments. Nature, 398: 802-805.

Brewer, P.G., F. Gernot, E.T. Peltzer, and F.M. Orr Jr. (1999). Direct experiments on the ocean disposal of fossil fuel CO2. Science, 284: 943-945.

Brewer, P.G. (1999). Contemplating action: Storing carbon dioxide in the ocean. In: Roger Revelle Commemorative Lecture, Washington, D.C., 15.

1998

Brewer, P.G., F.M. Orr Jr., G. Friederich, K.A. Kvenvolden, and D.L. Orange (1998). Gas hydrate formation in the deep sea: In situ experiments with controlled release of methane, natural gas, and carbon dioxide. Energy & Fuels, 12: 183-188.

1997

Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics (1997). Boundary layer dynamics. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 40 pp.

Brewer, P.G., F.M. Orr Jr., G. Friederich, K.A. Kvenvolden, D.L. Orange, J. McFarlane, and W. Kirkwood, C. (1997). Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle. Geology, 25: 407-410.

Brewer, P.G., F.M. Orr Jr., G. Friederich, K.A. Kvenvolden, and D.L. Orange (1997). Hydrate formation during controlled release of CH4 and CO2 in Monterey Bay. In: American Chemical Society: Division of Fuel Chemistry: Preprints of papers presented at the 213th ACS National meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 13-17, 1997, edited by. American Chemical Society,Washington, D.C., pp. 475-479.

Brewer, P.G., C. Goyet, and G. Friederich (1997). Direct observation of the oceanic CO2 increase revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94: 8308-8313.

Brewer, P.G. (1997). Ocean chemistry of the fossil fuel CO2 signal: The haline signal of “business as usual”. Geophysical Research Letters, 24: 1367-1369.

1995

Goyet, C., D.L. Davis, E.T. Peltzer, and P.G. Brewer (1995). Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate. Geophysical Research Letters, 22: 945-948.

Friederich, G.E., P.G. Brewer, R.A. Herlien, and F.P. Chavez (1995). Measurement of sea surface partial pressure of CO2 from a moored buoy. Deep-Sea Research I, 42: 1175-1186.

Brewer, P.G., D.M. Glover, C. Goyet, and D.K. Shafer (1995). The pH of the North Atlantic Ocean: Improvements to the global model for sound absorption in seawater. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100: 8761-8776.

1993

Peltzer, E.T. and P.G. Brewer (1993). Some practical aspects of measuring DOC – sampling artifacts and analytical problems with marine samples. Marine Chemistry, 41: 243-252.

Goyet, C. and P.G. Brewer (1993). Biochemical properties of the oceanic carbon cycle. In: Modelling oceanic climate interactions, edited by J. Willebrand and D. L. T. Anderson. Springer-Verlag,Berlin, pp. 271-297.

1992

Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming (1992). Policy implications of greenhouse warming — mitigation, adaptation, and the science base. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 918 pp.

Goyet, C., D.R. Walt, and P.G. Brewer (1992). Development of a fiber optic sensor for measurement of pCO2 in sea water: Design criteria and sea trials. Deep-Sea Research, 39: 1015-1026.

1991

Goyet, C., A. L. Bradshaw, and P. G. Brewer (1991). The carbonate system in the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Research, v. 38, 1049-1068.

1990

Brewer, P.G., S. Tsunogai and C.S. Wong (1990). Special Issue: Marine Geochemistry – Preface. Geochemical Journal, v. 24, 193-195.

1989

Brewer, P. G., C. Goyet, and D. Dyrssen (1989). Carbon dioxide transport by ocean currents at 25° N latitude in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, v. 246, 477-479.

1988

Bradshaw, A. L. and P. G. Brewer (1988). High precision measurements of alkalinity and total carbon dioxide in sea water by potentiometric titration.1. Presence of unknown protolytes(s)? Marine Chemistry, v. 23, 69-86.

Brewer, P. G. and F. S. Rowland (1988). Chemistry at the Air-Sea Interface. In: Proceedings CHEMRAWN IV. Modern Chemistry and Chemical Technology Applied to the Ocean and its Resources. Applied Geochemistry, v. 3, 37-48.

Bradshaw, A. L. and P. G. Brewer (1988). High precision measurements of alkalinity and total carbon dioxide in sea water by potentiometric titration. 2. Measurements on standard solutions. Marine Chemistry, v. 24, 155-162.

Glover, D. M. and P. G. Brewer (1988). Estimates of wintertime mixed layer nutrient concentrations in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, v. 35, 1525-1546.

1987

Scranton, M. I., F. L. Sayles, M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1987). Temporal changes in the hydrography and chemistry of the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Research, v. 34, 945-963.

Brewer, P. G. and D. M. Glover (1987). Ocean Chemical Fluxes 1983-1986. Reviews of Geophysics, v. 25, 1376-1386.

1985

Brewer, P. G. and D. Dyrssen (1985). Chemical Oceanography of the Persian Gulf. Prog. Oceanog., v. 14, 41-55.

DeBaar, H. J. W., P. G. Brewer, and M. P. Bacon (1985). Anomalies in rare earth distributions in sea water: Gd and Tb. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, 1943-1959.

DeBaar, H. J. W., M. P. Bacon, P. G. Brewer, and K. W. Bruland (1985). Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, 1961-1969.

Brewer, P. G., J. L. Sarmiento, and W. M. Smethie (1985). The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) Program: The North Atlantic Study, 1981; The Tropical Atlantic Study, 1983. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 90, 6903-6905.

1986

Brewer, P. G., A. L. Bradshaw, and R. T. Williams (1986). Measurements of total carbon dioxide and alkalinity in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1981. In: The Global Carbon Cycle: Analysis of the Natural Cycle and Implications of Anthropogenic Alterations for the Next Century, D. Reichle, ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 358-381.

Brewer, P. G., D. L. Musgrave, and A. L. Bradshaw (1986). Reconciling carbon and oxygen signals in the upper ocean. In: Workshop on Upper Ocean Processes, Horn Point, MD, R. Eppley and H. Ducklow, eds., GOFS Report Series, pp. 124-130.

Brewer, P. G. (1986). J. P. Riley. An Appreciation. Science of the Total Environment, v. 49, 7-9.

Brewer, P. G. (1986). What controls the variability of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean? A plea for complete information. In: Dynamic Processes in the Chemistry of the Upper Ocean, NATO ARI, Jouy-en-Jossas, 1983, J. D. Burton, P. G. Brewer, and R. Chesselet, eds., Plenum Press, New York, 215-281.

Brewer, P. G., K. W. Bruland, R. W. Eppley, and J. J. McCarthy (1986). The Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS): Status of the U.S. GOFS program. Eos, 67, 827-832.

1983

Deuser, W. G., P. G. Brewer, T. D. Jickells, and R. F. Commeau (1983). Biological control of the removal of abiogenic particles from the surface ocean. Science, v. 219, 388-391.

DeBaar, H. J. W., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1983). Rare earth distributions with a positive cerium anomaly in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, v. 301, 324-327.

Anderson, R. F., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1983). Removal of 230Th and 231Pa from the open ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 62, 7-23.

Brewer, P. G. (1983). Carbon Dioxide and the Oceans. In: Changing Climate. Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 186-215.

Anderson, R. F., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1983). Removal of 230Th and 231Pa at ocean margins. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 66, 73-90.

Brewer, P. G., W. S. Broecker, W. J. Jenkins, P. B. Rhines, C. G. Rooth, J. M. Swift, and T. Takahashi (1983). A climatic freshening of the deep North Atlantic (north of 50° N) over the past 20 years. Science, v. 222, 1237-1239.

1982

Anderson, R. F., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1982). Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake. Science, v. 216, 514-516.

1981

Balistrieri, L., P. G. Brewer, and J. W. Murray (1981). Scavenging residence times of trace metals and surface chemistry of sinking particles in the deep ocean. Deep-Sea Research, v. 28A, 101-121.

Spencer, D. W., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1981). Models of the distribution of 210Pb in a section across the north equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Marine Research, v. 39, 119-138.

1980

Goldman, J. C. and P. G. Brewer (1980). Effect of nitrogen source and growth rate on phytoplankton-mediated changes in alkalinity. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 25(2), 352-357.

Brewer, P. G., Y. Nozaki, D. W. Spencer, and A. P. Fleer (1980). Sediment trap experiments in the deep North Atlantic: isotopic and elemental fluxes. Journal of Marine Research, v. 38(4), 703-728.

Bacon, M. P., P. G. Brewer, D. W. Spencer, and J. W. Murray (1980). Lead-210, Polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Research, v. 27A, 119-135.

Bradshaw, A. L., P. G. Brewer, D. K. Shafer, and R. T. Williams (1980). Measurements of total carbon dioxide and alkalinity by potentiometric titration in the GEOSECS program. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 55, 99-115.

Spencer, D. W., M. P. Bacon, and P. G. Brewer (1980). The distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in the North Sea. Thal. Jugoslavica, v. 16, 125-154.

1978

Scranton, M. I. and P. G. Brewer (1978). Consumption of dissolved methane in the deep ocean. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 23, 1207-1213.

Bacon, M. P., D. W. Spencer, and P. G. Brewer (1978). Lead-210 and Polonium-210 as marine geochemical tracers: Review and discussion of some recent results from the Labrador Sea. In: Proceedings Conference on the National Radiation Environment III, T. F. Gesell and W. F. Lowder, eds., US DoE Report CONF-780422, 1, 473-501.

Brewer, P. G. (1978). Direct observation of the oceanic CO2 increase. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 5, 997-1000.

1977

Murray, J. W. and P. G. Brewer (1977). The mechanisms of removal of iron, manganese and other trace metals from seawater. In: Marine Manganese Deposits, G. P. Glasby, ed., Elsevier, Holland, pp. 291- 325.

Scranton, M. I. and P. G. Brewer (1977). Occurrence of methane in the near-surface waters of the western subtropical North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, v. 24, 127-138.

Wong, G. T. F. and P. G. Brewer (1977). The marine chemistry of iodine in anoxic basins. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 41, 151-159.

Brewer, P. G. and W. M. Hao (1977). Oceanic elemental scavenging. In: Chemical Modelling in Aqueous Systems, E. Jenne, ed., ACS Symposium Series, No. 93, pp. 266-274.

Spencer, D. W., P. G. Brewer, A. Fleer, S. Honjo, S. Krishnaswami, and Y. Nozaki (1977). Chemical fluxes from a sediment trap experiment in the deep Sargasso Sea. Journal of Marine Research, 36, 493-523.

1976

Wong, G. T. F. and P. G. Brewer (1976). The determination of iodide in seawater by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 81, 81-90.

Millero, F. J., A. Gonzalez, P. G. Brewer, and A. Bradshaw (1976). The density of North Atlantic and North Pacific deep waters. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 32, 468-472.

Brewer, P. G. and J. C. Goldman (1976). Alkalinity changes generated by phytoplankton growth. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 21, 108-117.

Brewer, P. G., D. W. Spencer, P. E. Biscaye, A. Hanley, P. L. Sachs, C. L. Smith, S. Kadar, and J. Fredericks (1976). The distribution of particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 32, 393-402.

Bacon, M. P., D. W. Spencer, and P. G. Brewer (1976). 210Pb/226Ra and 210Po/210Pb disequilibria in seawater and suspended particulate matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 32, 277-296.

Wong, G. T. F., P. G. Brewer, and D. W. Spencer (1976). The distribution of particulate iodine in the Atlantic Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 32, 441-450.

1975

Brewer,P. G. (1975). Minor elements in seawater. In: Chemical Oceanography, Volume I, Second Edition, J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow, eds., Academic Press, pp. 415-496.

Brewer, P. G. and A. Bradshaw (1975). The effect of non- ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density. Journal of Marine Research, v. 33, 157- 175.

Brewer, P. G., G. T. F. Wong, M. P. Bacon, and D. W. Spencer (1975). An oceanic calcium problem? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 26, 81-87.

Brewer, P. G. and D. W. Spencer (1975). Minor element models in coastal waters. In: Marine Chemistry in the Coastal Environment, T. M. Church, ed., ACS Symposium Series, 18, 80-96.

1974

Wong, G. T. F. and P. G. Brewer (1974). The determination and distribution of iodate in South Atlantic waters. Journal of Marine Research, v. 32, 25-36.

Brewer, P. G. and D. W. Spencer (1974). The distribution and flux of some trace elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the Black Sea. In: The Black Sea: Its Geology, Chemistry and Biology, E. T. Degens and D. A. Ross, eds., Mem. 20, Am. Assn. Petrol. Geol., pp. 137-143.

Brewer, P. G., et al. (1974). Interlaboratory lead analyses of standardized samples of seawater. Marine Chemistry, v. 2, 69- 84.

Brewer, P. G., R. A. Horne, and T. R. S. Wilson (1974). Water constituent sensors. In: Geoscience Instrumentation, E. A. Wolff, ed., Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 530-544.

1973

Brewer, P. G. and J. W. Murray (1973). Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Research, v. 20, 803-818.

1972

Brewer, P. G., D. W. Spencer, and D. E. Robertson (1972). Trace element profiles from the GEOSECS II test station in the Sargasso Sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 16, 111-116.

Spencer, D. W., P. G. Brewer, and P. L. Sachs (1972). Aspects of the distribution and trace element composition of suspended matter in the Black Sea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 36, 71-86.

1971

Brewer, P. G., T. R. S. Wilson, J. W. Murray, R. G. Munns, and C. D. Densmore, (1971). Hydrographic observations on the Red Sea brines indicate a marked increase in temperature. Nature, v. 231, 37-38.

Brewer, P. G. and D. W. Spencer (1971). Colorimetric determination of manganese in anoxic waters. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 16, 107-110.

Spencer, D. W. and P. G. Brewer (1971). Vertical advection, diffusion and redox potentials as controls on the distribution of manganese and other trace metals dissolved in waters of the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 76, 5877-5892.

1970

Brewer, P. G., D. W. Spencer, and P.E. Wilkniss (1970). Anomalous fluoride concentrations in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, v. 17, 1- 7.

Spencer, D. W. and Brewer, P. G. (1970). Analytical methods in oceanography, Part 1: Inorganic Methods. In: C.R.C. Critical Reviews in Solid State Sciences, Vol. 1, pp. 409-478.

Turner, J. S., T. G. L. Shirtcliffe and P. G. Brewer (1970). Elemental variations of transport coefficients across density interfaces in multiple diffusive systems. Nature, v. 338, 1083-1084.

1969

Brewer, P. G., D. W. Spencer, and C. L. Smith (1969). Determination of trace metals in sea water by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A.S.T.M. Special Publication, 443, 70-77.

Spencer, D. W. and P. G. Brewer (1969). The distribution of copper, zinc and nickel in sea water of the Gulf of Maine and the Sargasso Sea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 33, 325-339.

Brewer, P. G., C. D. Densmore, R. Munns, and R. J. Stanley (1969). Hydrography of the Red Sea brines. In: Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, E. T. Degens and D. A. Ross, eds., pp. 138- 147.

Brewer, P. G. and D. W. Spencer (1969). A note on the chemical composition of the Red Sea brines. In: Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, E. T. Degens and D. A. Ross, eds., pp. 174-179.

1967

Brewer, P. G. and J. P. Riley (1967). A study of some manual and automatic procedures for the determination of nitrate and silicate in sea water. Deep-Sea Research, v. 14, 475-477.

1966

Brewer, P. G. and J. P. Riley (1966). The automatic determination of silicate-silicon in natural waters with special reference to sea water. Anal. Chim. Acta, v. 35, 514-519.

Brewer, P. G., K. M. Chan, and J. P. Riley (1966). Automatic determination of certain micro-nutrients in sea water. In: Automation in Analytical Chemistry, Technicon Symposium, pp. 308-314.

1965

Brewer, P. G., J. P. Riley and F. Culkin (1965). The chemical composition of the hot salty water from the bottom of the Red Sea. Nature, v. 206, 1345-1346.

Brewer, P. G., J. P. Riley and F. Culkin (1965). The chemical composition of the hot salty water from the bottom of the Red Sea. Deep-Sea Research, v. 14, 475-477.

Brewer, P. G. and J. P. Riley (1965). The automatic determination of nitrate in sea water. Deep-Sea Research, v. 12, 765-772.